The economic impacts of tourism in Botswana, Namibia and South Africa: Is poverty subsiding?
Article first published online: 1 APR 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Natural Resources Forum © 2013 United Nations
Natural Resources Forum
Special Issue: Tourism
Volume 37, Issue 2, pages 80–89, May 2013
How to Cite
Muchapondwa, E. and Stage, J. (2013), The economic impacts of tourism in Botswana, Namibia and South Africa: Is poverty subsiding?. Natural Resources Forum, 37: 80–89. doi: 10.1111/1477-8947.12007
- Issue published online: 14 JUN 2013
- Article first published online: 1 APR 2013
- Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (Sida)
- multiplier effects;
- South Africa;
- poverty reduction
Tourism in southern Africa is based on the region's wildlife and nature assets and is generally environmentally sustainable, but the extent to which it contributes to other aspects of sustainable development — overall income generation or poverty eradication — is less well explored. In this paper, we use social accounting matrices to compare the economic impacts of foreign tourism in Botswana, Namibia and South Africa. Overall impacts on GDP range from 6% (South Africa) to 9% (Namibia). However, South Africa's economy is more diversified than its neighbours' and more of the goods and services used by tourists and by the tourism industry are supplied domestically. Consequently, the impact per Rand spent is considerably larger for South Africa than for Botswana or Namibia. The poorer segments of the population appear to receive shares of tourism income that are smaller than their share of overall income in all three countries.