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In this introduction to the special issue, a response-to-instruction approach to learning disabilities (LD) identification is discussed. Then, an overview of the promise and the potential pitfalls of such an approach is provided. The potential benefits include identification of students based on risk rather than deficit, early identification and instruction, reduction of identification bias, and linkage of identification assessment with instructional planning. Questions concern the integrity of the LD concept, the need for validated interventions and assessment methods, the adequacy of response to instruction as the endpoint in identification, the appropriate instruction intensity, the need for adequately trained personnel, and due process. Finally, an overview of the articles constituting the special issue is provided.