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Are Patriots Bigots? An Inquiry into the Vices of In-Group Pride


  • Rui J. P. De Figueiredo Jr.,

  • Zachary Elkins

Rui J. P. de Figueiredo, Jr. is Assistant Professor in the Haas School of Business and Department of Political Science, S-545 Student Services #1900, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1900 ( Zachary Elkins is Assistant Professor in the Department of Political Science, 361 Lincoln Hall, MC-452, 702 South Wright Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (


One view in the study of intergroup conflict is that pride implies prejudice. However, an increasing number of scholars have come to view in-group pride more benignly, suggesting that such pride can be accompanied by a full range of feelings toward the out-group. In this article, we focus on a substantively interesting case of in-group/out-group attitudes—national pride and hostility toward immigrants. We explore the relationship in two fundamental ways: first by examining the prejudice associated with various dimensions of pride, and second by embedding these relationships in a comprehensive model of prejudice. We find that national pride is most validly measured with two dimensions—patriotism and nationalism—two dimensions that have very different relationships with prejudice. While nationalists have a strong predilection for hostility toward immigrants, patriots show no more prejudice than does the average citizen.