Wheat hardness has major consequences for the entire wheat supply chain from breeders and millers over manufacturers to, finally, consumers of wheat-based products. Indeed, differences in hardness among Triticum aestivum L. or between T. aestivum L. and T. turgidum L. ssp. durum wheat cultivars determine not only their milling properties, but also the properties of flour or semolina endosperm particles, their preferential use in cereal-based applications, and the quality of the latter. Although the mechanism causing differences in wheat hardness has been subject of research more than once, it is still not completely understood. It is widely accepted that differences in wheat hardness originate from differences in the interaction between the starch granules and the endosperm protein matrix in the kernel. This interaction seems impacted by the presence of either puroindoline a and/or b, polar lipids on the starch granule surface, or by a combination of both. We focus here on wheat hardness and its relation to the presence of puroindolines and polar lipids. More in particular, the structure, properties, and genetics of puroindolines and their interactions with polar lipids are critically discussed as is their possible role in wheat hardness. We also address future research needs as well as the presence of puroindoline-type proteins in other cereals.