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Keywords:

  • HIV;
  • women;
  • social action theory;
  • adherence;
  • antiretroviral

ABSTRACT

Objective

To explore the relationships among contextual, environmental, and regulatory factors with antiretroviral (ARV) medication adherence to assist care providers in improving care for women living with HIV.

Design

Descriptive, multicenter study.

Setting

Sixteen HIV clinics and service organizations in North America.

Participants

This convenience sample was drawn from a larger study of 2,182 persons living with HIV recruited from clinics and service from September 2009 to January 2011. We included 383 women living with HIV who were taking ARV medications.

Methods

We assessed the relationship of contextual, environmental, and psychological factors specific to women living with HIV in relation to adherence to ARV medication. Descriptive and multivariate statistics were used to examine the effects of these factors on self-reported ARV drug adherence.

Results

Age, depression symptoms, stigma, engagement with health care provider, and four psychological factors were correlated with self-reported ARV medication adherence (p = .01). Regression analysis indicated that adherence self-efficacy and depression symptoms accounted for 19% for 3-day and 22% for 30-day self-reported medication adherence.

Conclusions

Adherence self-efficacy and depression symptoms predict ARV medication adherence in women and should be evaluated by nurses. Future research is needed to identify antecedents to and interventions that support adherence self-efficacy and decrease depression symptoms.