Age Estimation Using Foot Radiographs from a Modern Scottish Population


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Lucina Hackman, Ph.D.

Centre for Anatomy and Human Identification


Dow Street

Dundee DD1 5EH




The Hoerr et al. atlas was published in 1962 and provides a standard for the age estimation of juveniles through radiographs of the feet. This study examines the accuracy of this atlas when used as an age estimation method on a modern Scottish population. A total of 403 left foot/ankle radiographs (175 female, 228 male) were age assessed using the Hoerr et al. atlas method. Analysis showed that there was a strong correlation between chronological age and estimated age (female R² = 0.952, male R² = 0.962). The atlas had a tendency to underage all ages of females and to underage males up to the age of 10 years after which point the pattern is one of both over and underaging. This study showed that the Hoerr et al. atlas method can be applied to a modern population.