The diversity of soxB gene encoding a key enzyme of the Sox pathway sulfate thiohydrolase has been investigated in pure cultures of various halophilic and haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and in salt and soda lakes in southwestern Siberia and Egypt. The gene was detected in the majority of strains belonging to eleven SOB genera excluding members of genera Thiohalospira and Thioalkalimicrobium. The uncultured diversity of soxB in salt and soda lakes was low with a majority of detected sequences belonging to autotrophic SOB from the Gammaproteobacteria. In addition, the soxB analysis allowed detection of putative heterotrophic Gamma- and Alphaproteobacterial SOB yet unknown in culture. All clone libraries obtained from soda lakes contained soxB belonging to the genus Thioalkalivibrio in agreement with the cultivation results. Besides, representatives of the genera Halothiobacillus, Marinobacter, and Halochromatium and of the family Rhodobacteraceae have been detected in both type of saline lakes.