• phylogenetic microarray;
  • prebiotic;
  • amoxicillin;
  • ciprofloxacin;
  • doxycycline;
  • clindamycin


Prebiotics are considered to have potential to reduce disturbances in the gut microbiota induced by antibiotics. Results in literature are, however, not consistent. The current in vitro study conducted in a fermentation screening platform allowed to unambiguously compare the impact of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) on adult gut microbiota composition and activity upon treatment with four antibiotics at two doses. The changes in relative abundance of bacteria upon antibiotic treatment and the growth of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus upon GOS addition were antibiotic and dose dependant. This conclusion explains discrepancies in literature and indicates that particular combinations of GOS antibiotic should be studied. The combination GOS–Amoxicillin was especially of interest as, after decrease in Bifidobacterium levels, a recovery of mainly Bifidobacterium longum was observed and could be correlated with specific degradation patterns of GOS. Next to different degradation profiles of individual GOS, an accumulation of monosaccharides and intermediate organic acids was observed in antibiotic-treated microbiota as compared to nontreated microbiota. This showed that although GOS were utilized and beneficial bacteria could grow in 3 of 4 antibiotics tested, the metabolic activity of an antibiotic-treated microbiota was still disturbed as compared to the nontreated microbiota.