• Afset JE, Anderssen E, Bruant G, Harel J, Wieler L & Bergh K (2008) Phylogenetic backgrounds and virulence profiles of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains from a case–control study using multilocus sequence typing and DNA microarray analysis. J Clin Microbiol 46: 22802290.
  • Bando SY, Andrade FB, Guth BEC, Elias WP, Moreira-Filho CA & Pestana de Castro AF (2009) Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli genomic background allows the acquisition of non-EPEC virulence factors. FEMS Microbiol Lett 299: 2230.
  • Bentancor A, Vilte DA, Rumi MV, Carbonari CC, Chinen I, Larzabal M, Catadi A & Mercado EC (2010) Characterization of non-Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 strains isolated from dogs. Rev Argent Microbiol 42: 4648.
  • Bielaszewska M, Middendorf B, Kock R, Friedrich AW, Fruth A, Karch H, Schmidt MA & Mellmann A (2008) Shiga toxin-negative attaching and effacing Escherichia coli: distinct clinical associations with bacterial phylogeny and virulence traits and inferred in-host pathogen evolution. Clin Infect Dis 47: 208217.
  • Feng P, Dey M, Abe A & Takeda T (2001) Isogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains that lost the production of Shiga-toxin 1 and 2. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 8: 711717.
  • Feng P, Keys C, Lacher D, Monday S, Shelton D, Rozand C, Rivas M & Whittam TS (2010) Characterization and clonal analysis of Escherichia coli O157 non-H7 serotypes that carry eae alleles. FEMS Microbiol Lett 308: 6267.
  • Friedrich AW, Zhang W, Bielaszewska M, Mellmann A, Köck R, Fruth A, Tschäpe H & Karch H (2007) Prevalence, virulence profiles, and clinical significance of Shiga toxin-negative variants of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 infection in humans. Clin Infect Dis 45: 3945.
  • Gomes TAT, Irino K, Girao DM, Girao VBC, Guth BEC, Vaz TMI, Moreira FC, Chinarelli SH & Vieira MAM (2004) Emerging Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains? Emerg Infect Dis 10: 18511855.
  • Gunzburg ST, Tornieporth NG & Riley LW (1995) Identification of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli by PCR-based detection of the bundle-forming pilus gene. J Clin Microbiol 33: 13751377.
  • Iguchi A, Shirai H, Seto K, Ooka T, Ogura Y, Hayashi T, Osawa K & Osawa R (2011) Wide distribution of O157-antigen biosynthesis gene clusters in Escherichia coli. PLoS ONE 6: e23250.
  • Kaper JB (1996) Defining EPEC. Rev Microbiol 27: 130133.
  • Kozub-Witkowski E, Krause G, Frankel G, Kramer D, Appel B & Beutin L (2008) Serotypes and virutypes of enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains from stool samples of children with diarrhoea in Germany. J Appl Microbiol 104: 403410.
  • Krause G, Zimmermann S & Beutin L (2005) Investigation of domestic animals and pets as a reservoir for intimin-(eae) gene positive Escherichia coli types. Vet Microbiol 106: 8795.
  • Kumar S, Tamura K & Nei M (2004) MEGA3: integrated software for molecular evolutionary genetics analysis and sequence alignment. Brief Bioinform 5: 150163.
  • Lacher DW, Steinsland H, Blank TE, Donnenberg MS & Whittam TS (2007) Molecular evolution of typical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: clonal analysis by multilocus sequence typing and virulence gene allelic profiling. J Bacteriol 189: 342350.
  • Monday SR, Beisaw A & Feng PCH (2007) Identification of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli seropathotypes A and B by multiplex PCR. Mol Cell Probes 21: 308311.
  • Qi W, Lacher DW, Bumbaugh AC, Hyma KE, Ouellette LM, Large TM, Tarr CL & Whittam TS (2004) EcMLST: an online database for multilocus sequence typing of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Proceedings of IEEE Computational Systems Bioinformatics Conference, Washington, DC.
  • Ribot EM, Fair MA, Gautom R, Cameron DN, Hunter SB, Swaminathan B & Barrett TJ (2006) Standardization of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocols for the subtyping of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Shigella for PulseNet. Foodborne Pathog Dis 3: 5968.
  • Robins-Browne RM, Bordun AM, Tauschek M et al. (2004) Escherichia coli and community-acquired gastroenteritis, Melbourne, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 17971805.
  • Torres AG, Zhou X & Kaper JB (2005) Adherence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains to epithelial cells. Infect Immun 73: 1829.
  • Trabulsi LR, Keller R & Gomes TAT (2002) Typical and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Emerg Infect Dis 8: 508513.
  • Vieira MAM, Andrade JRC, Trabulsi LR, Rosa ACP, Dias AMG, Ramos Sônia RTS, Frankel G & Gomes TAT (2001) Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Escherichia coli strains of non-enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) serogroups that carry eae and lack the EPEC adherence factor and shiga toxin DNA probe sequences. J Infect Dis 183: 762772.