Antibiotic-producing soil bacteria of the genus Streptomyces form a huge natural reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes for the dissemination within the soil community. Streptomyces plasmids encode a unique conjugative DNA transfer system clearly distinguished from classical conjugation involving a single-stranded DNA molecule and a type IV protein secretion system. Only a single plasmid–encoded protein, TraB, is sufficient to translocate a double-stranded DNA molecule into the recipient in Streptomyces matings. TraB is a hexameric pore-forming ATPase that resembles the chromosome segregator protein FtsK and translocates DNA by recognizing specific 8-bp repeats present in the plasmid clt locus. Mobilization of chromosomal genes does not require integration of the plasmid, because TraB also recognizes clt-like sequences distributed all over the chromosome.