Novel concepts in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae biofilm formation

Authors

  • Jeroen D. Langereis,

    Corresponding author
    • Laboratory of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
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  • Peter W.M. Hermans

    1. Laboratory of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Current affiliation:
    1. Crucell – Johnson and Johnson, Leiden, The Netherlands
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Correspondence: Jeroen D. Langereis, Laboratory of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Internal Post 224, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Tel.: +31 24 366 7345; fax: +31 24 366 6352; e-mail: j.langereis@cukz.umcn.nl

Abstract

Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a Gram-negative microbe that frequently colonizes the human host without obvious signs of inflammation, but is also a frequent cause of otitis media in children and exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Accumulating data suggest that NTHi can reside in biofilms during both colonization and infection. Recent literature proposes roles for phosphorylcholine, sialic acid, bacterial DNA, but also eukaryotic DNA in the development of NTHi biofilms. However, many questions remain. Until now, there are insufficient data to explain how NTHi forms biofilms. Here, we review the recent advances in NTHi biofilm formation with particular focus on the role that neutrophils may play in this process. We propose that recruitment of neutrophils facilitates NTHi biofilm formation on mucosal sites by the initiation of neutrophil extracellular traps.

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