• secondary metabolites;
  • harzianic acid;
  • iron(III);
  • Trichoderma ;
  • siderophores


Agriculture-relevant microorganisms are considered to produce secondary metabolites during processes of competition with other micro- and macro-organisms, symbiosis, parasitism or pathogenesis. Many different strains of the genus Trichoderma, in addition to a direct activity against phytopathogens, are well-known producers of secondary metabolites and compounds that substantially affect the metabolism of the host plant. Harzianic acid is a Trichoderma secondary metabolite, showing antifungal and plant growth promotion activities. This report demonstrates the ability of this tetramic acid to bind with a good affinity essential metals such as Fe3+, which may represent a mechanism of iron solubilisation that significantly alters nutrient availability in the soil environment for other microorganisms and the host plant.