Exploring the hologenome concept in marine bivalvia: haemolymph microbiota as a pertinent source of probiotics for aquaculture

Authors

  • Florie Desriac,

    1. Université de Brest, EA3882, Laboratoire Universitaire de Biodiversité et Ecologie Microbienne (LUBEM), IFR148 ScInBioS, Institut Universitaire de Technologie, Quimper, France
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  • Patrick Le Chevalier,

    1. Université de Brest, EA3882, Laboratoire Universitaire de Biodiversité et Ecologie Microbienne (LUBEM), IFR148 ScInBioS, Institut Universitaire de Technologie, Quimper, France
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  • Benjamin Brillet,

    1. Université de Brest, EA3882, Laboratoire Universitaire de Biodiversité et Ecologie Microbienne (LUBEM), IFR148 ScInBioS, Institut Universitaire de Technologie, Quimper, France
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  • Ivan Leguerinel,

    1. Université de Brest, EA3882, Laboratoire Universitaire de Biodiversité et Ecologie Microbienne (LUBEM), IFR148 ScInBioS, Institut Universitaire de Technologie, Quimper, France
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  • Benoît Thuillier,

    1. Institut départemental d'analyses de conseil et d'expertise en hygiène alimentaire eau et environnement et santé animale, Quimper Cedex, France
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  • Christine Paillard,

    1. Université de Brest, CNRS, IRD, Ifremer, UMR 6539 Laboratoire des Sciences de l'Environnement Marin (LEMAR), Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer (IUEM), Technôple Brest Iroise, Plouzané, France
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  • Yannick Fleury

    Corresponding author
    1. Université de Brest, EA3882, Laboratoire Universitaire de Biodiversité et Ecologie Microbienne (LUBEM), IFR148 ScInBioS, Institut Universitaire de Technologie, Quimper, France
    • Correspondence: Yannick Fleury, Laboratoire Universitaire de Biodiversité et d'Ecologie Microbienne EA3882, Institut Universitaire de Technologie, Université de Brest, 6 rue de l'université, 29334 Quimper Cedex, France. Tel.:+33 (0) 298 641 935; fax: +33 (0) 298 641 969;

      e-mail: yannick.fleury@univ-brest.fr

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Abstract

Haemolymph-associated microbiota of marine bivalves was explored for antibacterial activity against important aquaculture pathogens. A collection of 843 strains were cultured from the haemolymph of four bivalve species (Crassostrea gigas, Mytilus edulis, Pecten maximus and Tapes rhomboides) collected by deep-sea diving in the Glenan Archipelago (France). Cell-free culture supernatants were investigated for antibacterial activity using the well-diffusion assay. About 3% of haemolymph-associated cultivable bacteria displayed antibacterial activity toward Gram-negative pathogens. Among the active bacteria, Pseudoalteromonas strains exhibited the highest antibacterial activity. The cell-free culture supernatant of one of them, named hCg-51, was able to inhibit the growth of bacterial pathogens even after drastic dilution (1 : 1024). Hemocyte survival was not significantly altered in the presence of the haemolymph-associated strains assayed. Moreover, a dose-dependent beneficial effect on hemocyte survival rates was observed with the hCg-51 strain. These results suggest that haemolymph microbiota may participate in bivalve protection and therefore confer a health benefit on the host. As a result, the results highlight bivalve haemolymph microbiota as a promising novel source for aquaculture probiotics. This work also gives a first insight into the contribution of the haemolymph-associated microbiota as part of the bivalve ‘hologenome’.

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