Salmonella is a leading cause of waterborne diseases. Salmonella can survive for a long time in aquatic environments, and its persistence in the environment is of great concern to public health. Nonetheless, the presence and diversity of Salmonella in the aquatic environments in most areas remain relatively unknown. In this study, we examined three analytical processes for an optimum Salmonella detection method, and the optimized method was used to evaluate seasonal variations of Salmonella in aquatic environments. In addition, Salmonella strains were isolated by selective culture medium to identify the serotypes by biochemical testing and serological assay, and to identify the genotypes by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis based on the genetic patterns. A total of 136 water samples were collected in the study area in 9 months. Forty-one (30.1%) samples were found to contain Salmonella-specific invA gene, and most (24/41) of the detections occurred in summer. The serovars of Salmonella enterica were identified, including Bareilly, Isangi, Newport, Paratyphi B var. Java, Potsdam and Typhimurium.