Ada response – a strategy for repair of alkylated DNA in bacteria
Article first published online: 6 JUN 2014
© 2014 The Authors. FEMS Microbiology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Microbiological Societies.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
FEMS Microbiology Letters
Volume 355, Issue 1, pages 1–11, June 2014
How to Cite
Mielecki, D. and Grzesiuk, E. (2014), Ada response – a strategy for repair of alkylated DNA in bacteria. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 355: 1–11. doi: 10.1111/1574-6968.12462
- Issue published online: 9 JUN 2014
- Article first published online: 6 JUN 2014
- Accepted manuscript online: 9 MAY 2014 06:29AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 5 MAY 2014
- Manuscript Revised: 4 APR 2014
- Manuscript Received: 13 FEB 2014
- National Science Center, Poland. Grant Numbers: UMO-2012/05/B/NZ1/00693, UMO-2011/03/B/NZ4/02425
- Ada response;
- alkylating agents;
- Ada proteins;
- ALKBH ;
- DNA repair
Alkylating agents are widespread in the environment and also occur endogenously. They can be cytotoxic or mutagenic to the cells introducing alkylated bases to DNA or RNA. All organisms have evolved multiple DNA repair mechanisms to counteract the effects of DNA alkylation: the most cytotoxic lesion, N3-methyladenine (3meA), is excised by AlkA glycosylase initiating base excision repair (BER); toxic N1-methyladenine (1meA) and N3-methylcytosine (3meC), induced in DNA and RNA, are removed by AlkB dioxygenase; and mutagenic and cytotoxic O6-methylguanine (O6meG) is repaired by Ada methyltransferase. In Escherichia coli, Ada response involves the expression of four genes, ada, alkA, alkB, and aidB, encoding respective proteins Ada, AlkA, AlkB, and AidB. The Ada response is conserved among many bacterial species; however, it can be organized differently, with diverse substrate specificity of the particular proteins. Here, an overview of the organization of the Ada regulon and function of individual proteins is presented. We put special effort into the characterization of AlkB dioxygenases, their substrate specificity, and function in the repair of alkylation lesions in DNA/RNA.