Ada response – a strategy for repair of alkylated DNA in bacteria

Authors

  • Damian Mielecki,

    1. Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland
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  • Elżbieta Grzesiuk

    Corresponding author
    1. Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland
    • Correspondence: Elżbieta Grzesiuk, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Pawińskiego 5A, 02-106 Warszawa, Poland. Tel.: +48 22 592 33 37; fax: +48 22 592 21 90; e-mail: elag@ibb.waw.pl

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Abstract

Alkylating agents are widespread in the environment and also occur endogenously. They can be cytotoxic or mutagenic to the cells introducing alkylated bases to DNA or RNA. All organisms have evolved multiple DNA repair mechanisms to counteract the effects of DNA alkylation: the most cytotoxic lesion, N3-methyladenine (3meA), is excised by AlkA glycosylase initiating base excision repair (BER); toxic N1-methyladenine (1meA) and N3-methylcytosine (3meC), induced in DNA and RNA, are removed by AlkB dioxygenase; and mutagenic and cytotoxic O6-methylguanine (O6meG) is repaired by Ada methyltransferase. In Escherichia coli, Ada response involves the expression of four genes, ada, alkA, alkB, and aidB, encoding respective proteins Ada, AlkA, AlkB, and AidB. The Ada response is conserved among many bacterial species; however, it can be organized differently, with diverse substrate specificity of the particular proteins. Here, an overview of the organization of the Ada regulon and function of individual proteins is presented. We put special effort into the characterization of AlkB dioxygenases, their substrate specificity, and function in the repair of alkylation lesions in DNA/RNA.

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