A mother cell-to-forespore channel: current understanding and future challenges
Article first published online: 28 AUG 2014
© 2014 The Authors FEMS Microbiology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Microbiological Societies.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
FEMS Microbiology Letters
How to Cite
Crawshaw, A. D., Serrano, M., Stanley, W. A., Henriques, A. O. and Salgado, P. S. (2014), A mother cell-to-forespore channel: current understanding and future challenges. FEMS Microbiology Letters. doi: 10.1111/1574-6968.12554
- Article first published online: 28 AUG 2014
- Accepted manuscript online: 4 AUG 2014 10:33AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 28 JUL 2014
- Manuscript Revised: 18 JUL 2014
- Manuscript Received: 6 JUN 2014
- Newcastle University and the Royal Society. Grant Number: RG120487
- Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT). Grant Number: Pest-C/EQB/LA0006/2011
- ERA-NET PathoGenoMics. Grant Number: ERA-PTG/SAU/0002/2008
- Programme IF. Grant Number: IF/00268/2013/CP1173/CT0006
- Clostridium difficile ;
- spoIIIA ;
- spoIIQ ;
- cell–cell communication;
- sigma factor
Formation of endospores allows some bacteria to survive extreme nutrient limitation. The resulting dormant cell, the spore, persists in the environment and is highly resistant to physical and chemical stresses. During spore formation, cells divide asymmetrically and the mother cell engulfs the developing spore, encasing it within a double membrane and isolating it from the medium. Communication between mother cell and isolated forespore involves a specialised connection system that allows nurturing of the forespore and continued macromolecular synthesis, required to finalise spore maturation. Here, we review current understanding of this feeding channel formed by a forespore protein, SpoIIQ, and a mother cell protein, SpoIIIAH, in the model organism Bacillus subtilis and the important human pathogen Clostridium difficile. We also analyse the presence of this channel across endospore-forming bacteria and highlight the main questions still remaining.