[The copyright line for this article was changed on 7 October 2014 after original online publication]
S-layers: principles and applications
Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014
© 2014 The Authors. FEMS Microbiology Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Microbiological Societies.
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FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Volume 38, Issue 5, pages 823–864, September 2014
How to Cite
Sleytr, U. B., Schuster, B., Egelseer, E.-M. and Pum, D. (2014), S-layers: principles and applications. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 38: 823–864. doi: 10.1111/1574-6976.12063
- Issue published online: 22 SEP 2014
- Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014
- Accepted manuscript online: 3 FEB 2014 01:25AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 13 JAN 2014
- Manuscript Revised: 10 JAN 2014
- Manuscript Received: 3 SEP 2013
- AFOSR Agreement Awards. Grant Numbers: FA9550-09-0342, FA9550-12-1-0274, FA9550-10-1-0223
- Austrian Science Fund. Grant Number: P 20256-B11
- Erwin-Schrödinger Society for Nanosciences, Vienna
- crystalline cell surface layers (S-layers);
- bacterial surface layers;
- synthetic biology
Monomolecular arrays of protein or glycoprotein subunits forming surface layers (S-layers) are one of the most commonly observed prokaryotic cell envelope components. S-layers are generally the most abundantly expressed proteins, have been observed in species of nearly every taxonomical group of walled bacteria, and represent an almost universal feature of archaeal envelopes. The isoporous lattices completely covering the cell surface provide organisms with various selection advantages including functioning as protective coats, molecular sieves and ion traps, as structures involved in surface recognition and cell adhesion, and as antifouling layers. S-layers are also identified to contribute to virulence when present as a structural component of pathogens. In Archaea, most of which possess S-layers as exclusive wall component, they are involved in determining cell shape and cell division. Studies on structure, chemistry, genetics, assembly, function, and evolutionary relationship of S-layers revealed considerable application potential in (nano)biotechnology, biomimetics, biomedicine, and synthetic biology.