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Biogeographic characteristics of Far Eastern wasps: A case study with eumenine wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae)



Jeong Kyu Kim, Department of Biological Sciences, Hanseo University, Daegok-ri, Seosan-si 356-706, Chungnam, Republic of Korea. Email:


A total of 107 forms of 88 eumenine wasp species occurring in the Far East were used to produce a more comprehensive picture of the geographical pattern of wasps in the Far East. All forms occurring in the Far East were biogeographically classified into 22 types in four larger categories, and a summarized table and discussion are presented. The eumenine wasp fauna of the Far East was characterized as a mixture of a fair number of endemic elements, a moderate number of transpalearctic elements, and some Oriental elements. The endemism of the Far East reached 0.71 at the species/subspecies level when the calculation was based on true Palearctic elements occurring in Far Eastern Russia, the Korean peninsula and Japan proper. The relationship between the Far Eastern fauna and the Central/Western Palearctic faunas was also analyzed and discussed. The species occurring in each treated district was counted, and provides evidence for the importance of the Korean fauna in biodiversity evaluation/estimation of Far Eastern fauna. The similarity index between the Korean Peninsula and Japan proper, the Korean Peninsula and the Russian Far East, and the Russian Far East and Japan proper was calculated to explain possible factors for faunal formation in the Far East. The distributional pattern of each form treated in this study and its relatives is tabulated in Appendix I.

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