Fossil data on the mammal diversity and species richness during the Late Pleistocene – Holocene transition are of extreme importance for the reconstruction of the evolution of terrestrial ecosystems as well as for the understanding of the present-day species phylogeography. These data can provide useful information that is relevant for the debate on how to conserve mammal genetic resources under the present-day circumstances that are the result of modern climate change. In earlier papers the dramatic transformations of North Eurasian mammal assemblages during the Pleistocene – Holocene transition have already been documented; however, the focus of these papers was mainly on changes in the zonal distribution of local faunal assemblages of the “Mammoth Fauna” complex and the extinction of key species (Vereshchagin & Baryshnikov 1992; Markova et al. 1995, 2002 a, b; 2003, 2006; Markova & Puzachenko 2007; Puzachenko & Markova 2007; Markova & Kolfschoten 2008; Baryshnikov & Markova 2009; Puzachenko 2010;).

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