• Early Pleistocene;
  • evolution;
  • Panthera fossilis;
  • relationships;
  • Western Siberia


A lion-like pantherine felid is described as Panthera (Leo) fossilis (von Reichenau, 1906) from the late Early Pleistocene sediments of the Kuznezk Basin (Western Siberia, Russia). The find of P. fossilis first recorded in Asia considerably extends current notion of the eastward expansion of the most ancient lions. The Siberian lion is geologically the oldest form and is dimensionally among the largest members of the group of fossil lions on the Eurasian continent. Although known by mandibular remains only, it is readily distinguished from Panthera (Leo) spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) by a heavy built mandibular corpus with rectangular profile in the cheek teeth area, a deep, well-outlined and narrow anterior section of the masseteric fossa, and a large р4 supported by a big unreduced anterior root. These features the Siberian lion shares with the European Middle Pleistocene P. fossilis and American Late Pleistocene P. (Leo) atrox (Leidy, 1853), which suggests their close relationship. P. atrox originated from P. fossilis and was isolated in North America south of the Late Pleistocene ice sheets. This explains why the American lion has retained more primitive features than the coeval Eurasian cave lion P. (L.) spelaea.

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