• antioxidant;
  • antimicrobial;
  • Carum copticum;
  • Ferula assafoetida;
  • food safety


Carum copticum and Ferula assafoetida have several medicinal properties including antispasmodic, carminative, sedative, analgesic, and antiseptic. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) scavenging activities of Carum and Ferula oils along with their antibacterial and antifungal activities were examined. Thymol (40.25%), γ-terpinene (38.7%) and p-cymene (15.8%) were detected as the main components of Carum oil while, β-pinene (47.1%), α-pinene (21.36%), and 1, 2-dithiolane (18.6%) were the main components of Ferula oil. Inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for total radical scavenging were between 40 and 60 and 130 and 160 μg/mL of Carum and Ferula oil, respectively. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans were 78 ± 8, 65 ± 7, 14 ± 3, 5 ± 2, 5.6 ± 1.3, and 8.8 ± 2.2 μg/mL of Carum oil, respectively. MIC for S. typhi, E. coli, S. aureus, B. subtilis, A. niger, and C. albicans were >200, >200, 125 ± 17, 80 ± 12, 85 ± 5, and 90 ± 11 μg/mL of Ferula oil, respectively. Accordingly, Carum and Ferula oils could be used as safe and effective natural antioxidants to improve the oxidative stability of fatty foods during storage and to preserve foods against food burn pathogens.

Practical Application: This study clearly demonstrates the potential of Carum and Ferula oil especially Carum oil as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent. The chemical composition of essential oils was identified. Thus, identification of such compounds also helps to discover of new antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal agents for potential applications in food safety and food preservation.