Industrial Application Briefs– December 2012

So much information to learn and so little time! As food crops try hard to compete with energy needs, drought conditions, and growing populations—and incidentally with shrinking research budgets—the need to use information grows in intensity. JFS, with its international outlook, offers much information of use in other parts of the world. Many of the papers should be studied for possible application in the global industrial world.

Corn Grains Serve as Immobilizing Media

Kefir is considered a natural mixed culture: when it is immobilized on boiled corn grains, it has been found to serve as an efficient biocatalyst for lactic acid fermentation. Reported in “Kefir Immobilized on Corn Grains as Biocatalyst for Lactic Acid Fermentation and Sourdough Bread Making,” researchers found that the boiled corn coated with kefir increased the fermentation rate and increased lactic acid production when compared with free kefir cells. The immobilized biocatalyst was used as a culture for making sourdough bread, producing good loaf volumes and sourdough bread that tasted and smelled like high-quality sourdough. The loaves produced in this way were more resistant to mold growth. The researchers tried the immobilized kefir on corn grains for fermenting whey—that also suggested that this simple way of boosting lactic acid fermentation might be particularly useful. They conclude: “the simplicity, efficiency, and low cost of the proposed biocatalyst and immobilization technique, as well as its protective effect on cell viability, are important features for applications in the food industry.”C1255–C1261

That's a Very Orange Orange …

Citrus Red #2 is used in the U.S. only as a coloring material for the peel of certain oranges, because it presumably doesn't penetrate the peel. It's a carcinogen, and banned in a number of countries, especially in countries where orangey-red color is taken as a signal for improved nutrition. Needless to say, some Citrus Red 2 occasionally can be found in oranges destined for China and other countries where the additive is banned. In “Microwave-Assisted Extraction and Determination of Citrus Red 2 Dye in Oranges and Orange Juice by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry”, the authors describe a fast, low cost method of checking whether there is Citrus Red 2 in oranges or juice. It's a simple method, with high product throughput. The researchers concluded that “the presence and levels of this carcinogen in orange and orange juice samples should be a matter of concern.”C1268–C1271

Novel Lipid Technology Produces Stable Omega-3 Spreads

Protecting omega-3 fatty acids by imbedding the fatty acids in an inner emulsion and adding natural antioxidants may provide a route to use of these healthy fats without the addition of synthetics. Work on this technology is described in “Effects of Green Tea Extract and α-Tocopherol on the Lipid Oxidation Rate of Omega-3 Oils, Incorporated into Table Spreads, Prepared using Multiple Emulsion Technology”. Green tea extract and α-Tocopherol were used and produced different effects. Double emulsion technology was used to produce omega-3 enriched spreads. The omega-3 from fish oil remained functional, and retained good flavor and texture. Green tea extracts have been reported to be effective in reducing lipid oxidation in spreads. The authors concluded that GTE improved the oxidative stability of omega-3 rich O/W and O/W/O emulsions because catechins from the green tea extract bound to the protein during storage. The multiple emulsion format is clearly demonstrated as complex systems with 2 oil phases, one aqueous phase and 2 interfacial layers, which allowed movement between phases. N59–N66

Perilla Seeds Offer a New Source of Exotic Oil

Perilla seed oil was found to be improved in stability and flavor, as well as nutrient factors. Perilla, a bushy shrub grown in China, Japan, and Korea, produces seeds similar to sesame seeds. and is considered a delicacy when added to frying oils. Roasting the seeds increases α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol, as well as phosphorus content in the oil, and increases the oxidative shelf-life. Evaluation of times and temperatures of roasting are reported in “Impact of Roasting on the Chemical Composition and Oxidative Stability of Perilla Oil”. The researchers concluded that “the total tocopherol contents, as well as γ -tocopherol in perilla oil, increased as roasting time increased up to certain roasting times at each temperature, and then a significant decrease of tocopherol beyond those time points occurred. The roasting process had a favorable effect on the oxidative stability of the oil as well as the stability of tocopherol during 60 d of storage at 60 °C.” The researchers compared the process with other exotic seed oils, adding to the information about temperature and seed oils of various types. C1272–C1277

Salt Type Doesn't Affect Food Safety in Meats

The emphasis on reducing salt content in foods has triggered the use of a variety of salt substitutes. There haven't been a lot of studies testing the effects of various salts or combinations on bacterial growth – which has caused some concerns. In “Effect of Salt Reduction on Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in Meat and Poultry Systems” a report on the effect of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, sea salt, or replacement salt in meat and poultry systems. A carefully done study indicates that salt type did not effect bacterial populations (Listeria monocytogenes) during storage. M670–M675

Understanding the Shape of Things

Drying fruits and vegetables provides more stable shelf-life for these products, as well as a larger range of use. But understanding the role of moisture content and temperature has advanced in recent times, including information about first and second order phase changes. The difference between true density and apparent density has confused food formulators. This paper, titled “True Density and Apparent Density during the Drying Process for Vegetables and Fruits: A Review” doesn't present new research, but seeks to provide a more polished framework to understanding of structure, chemical composition, and 2nd-order phase changes. Of course, carbohydrates in fruits and vegetables are a key component in phase change, and the addition of other components further complicates this understanding. The review helps to include all of the components in an organized manner. R145–R154

Specific Phytochemicals Helpful in Combating Allergic Conditions

In “Anthocyanins, but Not Anthocyanidins, from Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) Alleviate Pruritus via Inhibition of Mast Cell Degranulation”, the difference between specific phytochemicals is described. Anthocyanins degrade with heat to form anthocyanidins, which were found to be ineffective in relieving pruritis in mouse models. Tests used to determine concentration of anthocyanidins measures the two compounds without differentiation between them. The complexity of bilberry extracts further complicates the use of the compound. According to the authors, “Five main anthocyanidins are common in bilberry: cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, peonidin, and petunidin. The anthocyanins in bilberry, the glycoside forms of these anthocyanidins, include 3-glucosides, 3-galactosides, and 3-arabinosides. Therefore, there are a total of 15 types of glycosides and 5 anthocyanidins in bilberry.” It is likely that other phytochemical materials have similar complexity. H261–H266

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