Author disclosures: Use of names, names of ingredients, and identification of specific models of equipment is for scientific clarity and does not constitute any endorsement of product by authors, North Carolina State Univ., or the Southeast Dairy Foods Research Center.
R: Concise Reviews in Food Science
The Impact of Iron on the Bleaching Efficacy of Hydrogen Peroxide in Liquid Whey Systems
Article first published online: 18 JAN 2013
© 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®
Journal of Food Science
Volume 78, Issue 2, pages R129–R137, February 2013
How to Cite
Jervis, S. M. and Drake, M. (2013), The Impact of Iron on the Bleaching Efficacy of Hydrogen Peroxide in Liquid Whey Systems. Journal of Food Science, 78: R129–R137. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.12039
- Issue published online: 6 FEB 2013
- Article first published online: 18 JAN 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 31 OCT 2012
- Manuscript Received: 28 AUG 2012
- Dairy Research Inst.
- fenton reaction;
- hydrogen peroxide;
Whey is a value-added product that is utilized in many food and beverage applications for its nutritional and functional properties. Whey and whey products are generally utilized in dried ingredient applications. One of the primary sources of whey is from colored Cheddar cheese manufacture that contains the pigment annatto resulting in a characteristic yellow colored Cheddar cheese. The colorant is also present in the liquid cheese whey and must be bleached so that it can be used in ingredient applications without imparting a color. Hydrogen peroxide and benzoyl peroxide are 2 commercially approved chemical bleaching agents for liquid whey. Concerns regarding bleaching efficacy, off-flavor development, and functionality changes have been previously reported for whey bleached with hydrogen peroxide and benzoyl peroxide. It is very important for the dairy industry to understand how bleaching can impact flavor and functionality of dried ingredients. Currently, the precise mechanisms of off-flavor development and functionality changes are not entirely understood. Iron reactions in a bleached liquid whey system may play a key role. Reactions between iron and hydrogen peroxide have been widely studied since the reaction between these 2 relatively stable species can cause great destruction in biological and chemical systems. The actual mechanism of the reaction of iron with hydrogen peroxide has been a controversy in the chemistry and biological community. The precise mechanism for a given reaction can vary greatly based upon the concentration of reactants, temperature, pH, and addition of biological material. In this review, some hypotheses for the mechanisms of iron reactions that may occur in fluid whey that may impact bleaching efficacy, off-flavor development, and changes in functionality are presented.
Practical Application: Cheese whey is bleached to remove residual carotenoid cheese colorant. Concerns regarding bleaching efficacy, off-flavor development, and functionality changes have been reported for whey proteins bleached with hydrogen peroxide and benzoyl peroxide. It is very important for the dairy industry to understand how whey bleaching can impact flavor and functionality of dried ingredients. Proposed mechanisms of off-flavor development and functionality changes are discussed in this hypothesis paper.