Protein was recovered from headed gutted silver carp by isoelectric solubilization at pH 2.5, 3.0, 11.5, or 12.0 and precipitation (ISP) at pH 5.5 using acetic (AA) or a 30% formic and lactic acid combination (F&L) and 10 N sodium hydroxide. Total protein and fat recovery yields, proximate composition and mineral analyses of fractions were determined. Protein and lipid recovery yields when solubilized under basic conditions were comparable to yields reported from other studies using hydrochloric acid; however, the recovered fractions were less pure. Processing at basic pH using AA was more effective than F&L at removing impurities (P < 0.05) from the recovered protein fraction and impurities were effectively removed from recovered lipids regardless of processing pH or acid type (P > 0.05). For the most part, sodium was greater (P < 0.05) and there was less calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and iron (P < 0.05) in the recovered protein regardless of acid used when compared to the initial paste. This research shows that organic acids have the potential to recover protein and lipid by ISP processing.
Practical Application: This research presents a reliable method for extracting nutritionally valuable fish protein and oils from otherwise hard to process fish and its byproducts. Replacing the traditionally used strong acids with organic acids might further accomplish bacterial load reduction while resulting in similar to or improved protein recovery yields. Therefore, this technology may increase the commercial viability of hard to process fish.