• antimicrobial activity;
  • edible films;
  • glucose oxidase;
  • hydrophobicity;
  • nisin


The use of edible antimicrobial films has been reported as a means to improve food shelf life through gradual releasing of antimicrobial compounds on the food surface. This work reports the study on the incorporation of 2 antimicrobial agents, nisin (N), and/or glucose oxidase (GO), into the matrix of Whey protein isolate (WPI) films at pH 5.5 and 8.5. The antimicrobial activity of the edible films was evaluated against Listeria innocua (ATCC 33090), Brochothrix thermosphacta (NCIB10018), Escherichia coli (JMP101), and Enterococcus faecalis (MXVK22). In addition, the antimicrobial activity was related to the hydrophobicity and water solubility of the WPI films. The greatest antibacterial activity was observed in WPI films containing only GO. The combined addition of N and GO resulted in films with lower antimicrobial activity than films with N or GO alone. In most cases, a pH effect was observed as greater antimicrobial response at pH 5.5 as well as higher film matrix hydrophobicity. WPI films supplemented with GO can be used in coating systems suitable for food preservation.

Practical Application

The potential application of this research may introduce profits in the food industry. Present study showed that edible films with nisin and/or glucose oxidase inhibit the grown of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Design of a new packaging technology can be used to control the grown of L. innocua, B. thermosphacta, E. coli, and E. faecalis usually found in meat and some vegetables.