E: FOOD ENGINEERING AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Development of Novel Methods to Determine Crystalline Glucose Content of Honey Based on DSC, HPLC, and Viscosity Measurements, and Their Use to Examine the Setting Propensity of Honey
Article first published online: 2 MAY 2013
© 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®
Journal of Food Science
Volume 78, Issue 6, pages E845–E852, June 2013
How to Cite
Al-Habsi, N. A., Davis, F. J. and Niranjan, K. (2013), Development of Novel Methods to Determine Crystalline Glucose Content of Honey Based on DSC, HPLC, and Viscosity Measurements, and Their Use to Examine the Setting Propensity of Honey. Journal of Food Science, 78: E845–E852. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.12103
- Issue published online: 17 JUN 2013
- Article first published online: 2 MAY 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 5 FEB 2013
- Manuscript Received: 1 NOV 2012
- glucose monohydrate;
Crystallization must occur in honey in order to produce set or creamed honey; however, the process must occur in a controlled manner in order to obtain an acceptable product. As a consequence, reliable methods are needed to measure the crystal content of honey (ϕ expressed as kg crystal per kg honey), which can also be implemented with relative ease in industrial production facilities. Unfortunately, suitable methods do not currently exist. This article reports on the development of 2 independent offline methods to measure the crystal content in honey based on differential scanning calorimetry and high-performance liquid chromatography. The 2 methods gave highly consistent results on the basis of paired t-test involving 143 experimental points (P > 0.05, r2 = 0.99). The crystal content also correlated with the relative viscosity, defined as the ratio of the viscosity of crystal containing honey to that of the same honey when all crystals are dissolved, giving the following correlation: . This correlation can be used to estimate the crystal content of honey in industrial production facilities. The crystal growth rate at a temperature of 14 °C—the normal crystallization temperature used in practice—was linear, and the growth rate also increased with the total glucose content in the honey.
Based on this work, the crystal content of honey can be measured with ease and accuracy using either differential scanning calorimetry or high-performance liquid chromatography. Further, the correlation between crystal content and relative viscosity of honey can be used to estimate the crystal content by simply measuring honey viscosity. The methods can also be used to monitor the propensity of honeys to crystallize.