Important functional properties of milk protein concentrate with 80% protein (MPC80), modified with low- and high-shear extrusion, or low-temperature toasting were compared. The effect of high- and low-shear profile screws in a corotating twin-screw extruder, and 4 different ramped temperature profiles with die temperatures of 65, 75, 90, and 120 °C were compared. Extrudates were pelletized, dried, and ground to a fine powder. Toasting was done at 75 and 110 °C for 4 h for milk protein modification. Extruded and toasted MPC80 had reduced protein solubility and surface hydrophobicity. Extrusion decreased water-holding capacity (WHC). Toasted MPC80 had increased WHC when treated at 75 °C, but WHC decreased when heated at 110 °C. The treatments had no strong influence on gel strength. Reduced and nonreduced sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed peptide structural changes that occurred due to processing, especially for whey proteins. Results are discussed in terms of potential for application of extruded or toasted MPC80 in high-protein nutrition bar applications.
Modified milk protein concentrates may have the potential to substitute other protein sources in high-protein food applications.