• antioxidant activity;
  • honey;
  • physicochemical attributes;
  • Portugal


The present study evaluated the physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of 13 commercial honeys from diverse floral origin, produced in Portugal. The values of electrical conductivity of cardoon and pennyroyal honeys were superior to the maximum limits defined by European legislation. Citrus, strawberry tree, and 1 sample of lavender honeys had values of diastase activity below those determined by European legislation. Strawberry tree, pennyroyal, and cardoon honeys had the highest amounts of potassium that coincided with the highest electrical conductivity. Strawberry tree honey was the most effective as antioxidant along with cardoon and heather honeys. This ability was strongly correlated with the amounts of phenols and flavonoids and not with the levels of vitamin C or proline.