The main constituents in an aqueous extract of Tricholoma matsutake (Tm) were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/TOF-MS) and ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/Trap-MSn). The main factors in the extraction process which affect the yields of nutrients were optimized by single-factor experiments and orthogonal experiment design. In total, 12 constituents were identified from the aqueous extract of Tm, including tyrosine, cytidine, uridine, eritadenine, phenylalanine, nicotinamide, inosine, guanosine, tryptophan, adenosine, 5′-deoxy-5′-methylthioadenosine and riboflavin. The optimized extraction conditions were: the ratio of water to sample was 10 : 1 (v/w), Tm was extracted by ultrasonic-assisted extraction for 10 min, followed by water bath heating at 60 °C for 1 h. Among these extraction factors, the heating temperature is significant based on analysis of variance (ANOVA). The yields of nutrients were affected dramatically at high temperature leading to the loss of nutrients, especially for nucleosides and some amino acids.
This study provides a basis for industrialized production of health products extracted from Tricholoma matsutake and other mushrooms.