Aquaculture has become an important source of fish available for human consumption. In order to achieve greater productivity, intensive fish cultivation systems are employed, which can cause greater susceptibility to diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Antimicrobial substances are compounds used in livestock production with the objectives of inhibiting the growth of microorganisms and treatment or prevention of diseases. It is well recognized that the issues of antimicrobial use in food animals are of global concern about its impact on food safety. This paper present an overview of the aquaculture production in the whole world, raising the particularities in Brazil, highlighting the importance of the use of veterinary drugs in this system of animal food production, and address the potential risks arising from their indiscriminate use and their impacts on aquaculture production as they affect human health and the environment. The manuscript also discusses the analytical methods commonly used in the determination of veterinary drug residues in fish, with special issue for fluroquinolones residues and with emphasis on employment of LC-MS/MS analytical technique.