Adsorptive Removal of Patulin from Apple Juice Using Ca-Alginate-Activated Carbon Beads



This study aimed to investigate the adsorption of patulin from apple juice by Ca-alginate-activated carbon (Ca-alginate-AC) beads. The capacity of patulin was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that Ca-alginate-AC beads have significant ability to reduce patulin from contaminated apple juice. Furthermore, the adsorption process did not affect the quality of apple juice. The effects of contact time, initial patulin concentration, adsorbent dose, and temperature were assessed. The removal percentage of patulin increased with contact time, adsorbent dose, and temperature. A reduction was also noted to bind patulin at increased levels of contamination. The equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models and the isotherm constants were calculated at different temperatures. The adsorption equilibrium was best described by the Freundlich isotherm (R2 > 0.990). The pseudo 1st-order model was found to describe the kinetic data satisfactorily. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG◦◦), standard enthalpy (ΔH◦), and standard entropy (ΔS◦) were evaluated. The results showed that the adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic nature.