Industrial Applications of Selected JFS Articles

New Wrinkles in Fish Oil Emulsions

The paper titled “Stabilization of Fish Oil-in-Water Emulsions with Oleosin Extracted from Canola Meal” covers new work that may result in more stable omega 3 fish oils, without the addition of chemical antioxidants. In this study, oil bodies were prepared from tuna oil, oleosin, and phospholipid that result in developing a natural oil replacer for oil bodies within oilseeds. Oleosin was extracted from canola (Brassica napus) meal by solubilization in aqueous sodium hydroxide (pH 12) and subsequent precipitation at its isoelectric point of pH 6.5. This appears to be a departure, as oleosin, according to the researchers, had not previously been used to prepare AOBs (artificial oil bodies) instead of using OB (oil bodies – depositions of oil in the seed) from oilseed. The tuna oil artificial oil bodies (AOBs) readily dispersed in water to produce oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions, which did not coalesce on storage and were processed by pasteurization using standard conditions. Accelerated oxidation studies showed that these AOB emulsions were more resistant to lipid oxidation than o/w emulsions prepared from tuna oil using Tween 40, sodium caseinate, and commercial canola protein isolate, respectively. There is potential to use commercial canola meal, which is cheap and abundant, as a source of protein for this application. The researchers concluded that “It is also the first report on preparation of AOBs containing longchain omega-3 oils as the core lipid.” The long term use of these products could increase the amount of omega-3 oils used in foods that are popularly consumed, helping to reduce cardiac diseases. C1340–C1347

Getting the Drop on E. coli 0157:H7 on Apples

A number of years ago, there was a great scare about the appearance of the relatively newly discovered E coli known as 0157:H7 in unpasteurized apple cider. After due diligence, it was found that animals wandering around orchards (deer and cattle, if memory serves, but it could have been squirrels and bunny rabbits) contaminated drop apples used in apple juice and cider. The apples were washed, but probably rinsed might be more accurate. In “Efficacy of Plant-Derived Antimicrobials as Antimicrobial Wash Treatments for Reducing Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli O157:H7 on Apples,” researchers from UConn and Purdue studied the efficacy of 3 GRAS status, plant based antimicrobials. The study used inoculation studies using different strains of 0157:H7, and found that 2 of the GRAS substances, (carvacrol, and β-resorcylic acid) were effective in reducing 0157:H7 sufficiently to consider for use. The researchers concluded that “Although the cost of using plant derived materials as a wash may be slightly more than that of chlorine, their increased antimicrobial efficacy on apples compared to chlorine needs to be considered. Future studies to determine the sensory and quality characteristics of apples treated with the plant derived materials are necessary before recommending their usage.” This may be especially important with the growing popularity of organic production of fruit, which typically uses manure for fertilizer, and the consumer preference for non-chemical solutions of bacterial elimination. M1399–M1404

What's in a Name? Ask an Almond Grower

And the answer is that if the name of the cultivar is Nonpareil, the grower gets bigger bucks for his crop. Varieties of California almonds are grouped into “Marketing Groups”, and the Nonpareil Marketing Group includes an old standby, Nonpareil, which produces a dependable crop, can be blanched, and have a luminous pellicle (the seed coat.) In the paper titled “Distinguishing Nonpareil Marketing Group Almond Cultivars through Multivariate Analyses” researchers evaluated characteristics (19 different characteristics) and found that they could identify the varieties represented by the NMG (4 varieties, but mostly Nonpareil) with only 2% incorrect choices. Because the difference between Marketing Groups result in a 30% difference in price, it's good to be able to dependably identify the expensive almonds. Almond characteristics are variable, thanks to weather change from season to season, but the identifications were remarkably consistent. S1430–S1436

Rice Ice Cream?

Ice cream – or, more properly, frozen dessert – is a highly complex system of fat, sugars, and air, whipped and sheared while freezing to provide tiny globules of fat in the matrix that makes it taste yummy. Unfortunately, it occasions comments during a physical exam: Doctor: “Hitting the ice cream, again, I see.” To help avoid that annual unpleasantness, a group of scientists from the Univ. of Guelph has started developing an ice-cream like dessert that includes an oleogel made from high oleic sunflower oil and rice bran wax. The first chapter is described in the paper “The Potential Application of Rice Bran Wax Oleogel to Replace Solid Fat and Enhance Unsaturated Fat Content in Ice Cream”, which identifies the methods used to measure the emulsion characteristics. The rice bran wax dessert needs some more work, according to the scientists, but shows promise in replacing the all-vegetable oil product, versions of which is currently being sold. If funding is available, we can expect to see chapter 2 – a finished ice cream with wonderful flavor and texture, but without butterfat. The study was supported by Nestle Product Technology Centre, Beauvais, France. C1334–C1339