• carrot aroma;
  • GC–MS;
  • sensory evaluation;
  • terpenoids;
  • volatiles


The aroma characteristics and volatile profiles of 14 carrot varieties were investigated by sensory evaluations and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry volatile analyses. The sensory map obtained by principal components analysis showed that the sensory attributes comprised 3 categories: sour/green, overall carrot/harsh/ink-like, and fruity/fresh/sweet. The Kuroda type is characterized by lower intensities of overall carrot/harsh/ink-like and fruity/fresh/sweet notes. Furthermore, volatile profiling indicated that this type did not have significantly higher amounts of volatiles. Partial least squares regression analysis determined the quantitative contributions to ink-like, harsh, and fruity carrot aromas; monoterpenes had significant positive correlations with these attributes, while bisabolene isomers had negative correlations. The aroma attribute intensity and contents of volatiles and nutritional compounds are relatively low in the Kuroda type than in other carrot types. This type may be useful for reducing carrot harshness during the development of new carrots with good eating qualities.

Practical Application

We describe the differences in aroma characteristic and volatile profiling among carrot varieties, and it has revealed that the Kuroda is a useful carrot type for reducing carrot harshness. We identified the quantitative contributions of terpene compounds for aroma attributes in carrot roots. Information in this study will support the development of new carrots that satisfy consumer demands.