• apple peel;
  • biopolymer film;
  • carboxymethylcellulose;
  • high-pressure homogenization;
  • nanoclay


Biodegradable packaging films were developed from polymeric blends of apple peel powder (APP) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), into which different nanoclays were incorporated to produce a nanocomposite film. After first estimating the barrier and mechanical properties of 4 different biopolymer films (CMC, methylcellulose, gelatin, and polylactide), CMC was chosen as the best film-forming solution. Three different nanoclays (Cloisite Na+, 30B, and 20A) were subsequently dispersed in a CMC film solution to improve the barrier and physical properties of the final CMC nanocomposite films. The structures of the exfoliated CMC nanocomposite films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine the most efficient nanoclay type, with Cloisite Na+ addition being found to demonstrate the greatest improvement in the barrier and mechanical properties of the film. Finally, the CMC and Cloisite Na+ solution were thoroughly blended with APP using a high-pressure homogenization (HPH) process to develop biopolymer nanocomposite films, which were then characterized using XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The HPH treatment significantly improved the film-forming ability by increasing the dispersity of APP in the CMC nanocomposites, as well as having various other effects on the physical properties. These nanocomposite films can be viewed as an alternative solution for the use of agricultural biomass in developing environmentally friendly packaging materials.

Practical Application

Cloisite Na+ nanoclay noticeably improved the barrier and elongation properties of a biopolymer film. High-pressure homogenization successfully blended apple peel powder with carboxymethylcellulose to develop a nanocomposite film. The apple peel and CMC-based nanocomposite films that were developed could be used as a novel biodegradable packaging material.