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Keywords:

  • dairy powders;
  • flavor;
  • free fat;
  • lipid oxidation;
  • spray drying

Abstract

Dried dairy ingredients are utilized in various food and beverage applications for their nutritional, functional, and sensory properties. Dried dairy ingredients include milk powders of varying fat content and heat treatment and buttermilk powder, along with both milk and whey proteins of varying protein contents. The flavor of these ingredients is the most important characteristic that determines consumer acceptance of the ingredient applications. Lipid oxidation is the main mechanism for off-flavor development in dried dairy ingredients. The effects of various unit operations on the flavor of dried dairy ingredients have been investigated. Recent research documented that increased surface free fat in spray dried WPC80 was associated with increased lipid oxidation and off-flavors. Surface free fat in spray-dried products is fat on the surface of the powder that is not emulsified. The most common emulsifiers present in dried dairy ingredients are proteins and phospholipids. Currently, only an association between surface free fat and lipid oxidation has been presented. The link between surface free fat in dried dairy ingredients and flavor and flavor stability has not been investigated. In this review, some hypotheses for the role of surface free fat on the flavor of dried dairy ingredients are presented along with proposed mechanisms.

Practical Application

Dried dairy ingredients are utilized in various food and beverage applications for their nutritional, functional, and sensory properties. Lipid oxidation is the main mechanism for off-flavor development in dried dairy ingredients, and the distribution of fat may play a critical role in flavor and flavor stability. Some hypotheses for the role of surface free fat on the flavor of dried dairy ingredients are presented along with proposed mechanisms.