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With recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration's proposed changes to the Nutrition Facts panel, many food processors will review and, in some cases, reformulate some packaged food products. The new panel has a variety of changes that are designed to help consumers make more informed food choices and maintain healthy dietary practices. If adopted after the comment period, the changes would include updated serving size requirements and new labeling requirements for certain package sizes, as well as a refreshed design. Among these proposed changes, the Daily Values for a variety of nutrients such as sodium, dietary fiber, and Vitamin D will be revised. Vitamins A and C would no longer be required on the label, though manufacturers could declare them voluntarily. A new line on the panel will list “added sugars” to help consumers know how much sugar has been added to the product. The serving size requirements will be updated to reflect the amounts people currently eat. All of these changes will have food technologists considering the formulation of many packaged foods in light of their nutritional content. This issue of the journal has several studies that relate to formulating foods to modify nutritional aspects, including decreasing food particle size to increase salt taste perception. Other studies in this issue highlight the effective use of chlorine-based sanitizers, review how gut microbiota change with diet, identify why splits occur in Swiss cheese, and, maybe, offer some hope for garlic lovers to alleviate hailosis.

Hope for Chronic Garlic Eaters

  1. Top of page
  2. Hope for Chronic Garlic Eaters
  3. Manipulating Gut Microbiota through Diet
  4. Decrease Particle Size and Increase Salt Perception
  5. Improving Dried Dairy Products by Understanding Process Parameters
  6. Optimizing Chlorine-Based Sanitizer Performance
  7. Monitoring Splits in Swiss Cheese Using VOCs

No one likes to have allyl methyl disulfide, diallyl disulfide, allyl mercaptan, and allyl methyl disulfide on their breath. But, despite these odorus garlic breath volatiles, most of us can't resist adding a little, and sometimes a lot, of garlic to spice up a dish. Well, there may be some relief for garlic lovers and those who have to talk to them. Ryan Munch and Sheryl Barringer from The Ohio State Univ. examined the ability of a variety of foods and beverages to reduce garlic breath in “Deodorization of Garlic Breath Volatiles by Food and Food Components.” Garlic breath volatiles were significantly reduced by parsley, spinach, mint, raw and microwaved apple, soft drink, green tea, and lemon juice when compared to a water control. Chlorophyllin and whey protein treatments did not significantly reduce the volatiles. The authors believe that enzymatic deodorization may have occurred in parsley, spinach, mint, and raw apple treatments, while the deodorization effects of microwaved apple, lemon juice, and green tea were likely due to polyphenolic deodorization. The lack of enzymatic activity in the microwaved apple may explain why it was less effective than raw apple in breath deodorization. This suggests that enzymatic deodorization is more effective than polyphenolic deodorization. Acidic pH may have been involved in the deodorization of lemon juice and soft drink breath experiments, but, according to the authors, its mechanism for breath deodorization is unclear and needs further examination. The authors believe that future work using sensory evaluation is needed to determine which of the treatments have the most noticeable effect on breath odor. They conclude that with consumption of full-flavor garlic, it is not yet possible to completely avoid bad breath. So eat that heaping plate of hearty garlic-flavored spaghetti sauce with raw apple slices, spinach salad, and green tea, but it may be best to avoid others until you can use some mouthwash. C526–C533

Manipulating Gut Microbiota through Diet

  1. Top of page
  2. Hope for Chronic Garlic Eaters
  3. Manipulating Gut Microbiota through Diet
  4. Decrease Particle Size and Increase Salt Perception
  5. Improving Dried Dairy Products by Understanding Process Parameters
  6. Optimizing Chlorine-Based Sanitizer Performance
  7. Monitoring Splits in Swiss Cheese Using VOCs

An estimated 100 trillion microbes in the human gut coevolve with us and have a significant influence on our health. A group from Tianjin Univ. reviewed research exploring the dynamic changes of gut microbiota associated with human genotypes, age, and diet in “Diet Effects in Gut Microbiome and Obesity.” The review provides a better understanding of how the interrelationship between diet, intestinal microbiome and body immune system could aid the development of therapeutic approaches for various diseases. Manipulating gut microbiota through diet (both long-term and short-term diet patterns), probiotics and/or prebiotics, and antibiotics has the potential to prevent various metabolic disorders including obesity. Diets and gut microbes interact in several ways including selective bacterial fermentation of nutrients, lower intestinal barrier function, overexpression of genes associated with disorders, and disruptions to both innate and adaptive immunity. R442–R451

Decrease Particle Size and Increase Salt Perception

  1. Top of page
  2. Hope for Chronic Garlic Eaters
  3. Manipulating Gut Microbiota through Diet
  4. Decrease Particle Size and Increase Salt Perception
  5. Improving Dried Dairy Products by Understanding Process Parameters
  6. Optimizing Chlorine-Based Sanitizer Performance
  7. Monitoring Splits in Swiss Cheese Using VOCs

Salt intake is a significant problem. In Western countries, the daily salt intake is in the range of 8 to 12 g, which is significantly higher than the physiological needs of the human body. Excessive sodium intake is linked to the development of hypertension. The difficulty for food processors is reducing sodium content while maintaining food acceptability. Despite extensive research in this field, little has been published on real-world complex food products. These researchers, from Dijon, France, investigated whether the size of particles, easily adjusted in food processing, could influence the salty taste of low-salt food products in “Ham Particle Size Influences Saltiness Perception in Flans.” The group evaluated the effect of various ham particle sizes on salt perception and the consumer acceptance of flans varying in their overall salt concentrations (low- and high-salt content). They found that the addition of ham to flans increased the salty taste perception and second, that a decrease in ham particle size (ground ham) increased the perceived saltiness. Moreover, they found that low- and high-salt flans were equally liked, demonstrating that food manufacturers could reduce the salt contents (in this case, by over 15%) while maintaining consumer acceptability through the manipulation of the size of the salt-providing particles. A decrease in ham particle size increases the overall surface of particles, which efficiently increases the perceived saltiness without addition of any additive and without significant loss of sensory acceptability. S693–S696

Improving Dried Dairy Products by Understanding Process Parameters

  1. Top of page
  2. Hope for Chronic Garlic Eaters
  3. Manipulating Gut Microbiota through Diet
  4. Decrease Particle Size and Increase Salt Perception
  5. Improving Dried Dairy Products by Understanding Process Parameters
  6. Optimizing Chlorine-Based Sanitizer Performance
  7. Monitoring Splits in Swiss Cheese Using VOCs

Dried dairy ingredients are used in many food and beverage applications for their nutritional, functional, and sensory properties. Their benefits include a reduction in shipping costs, versatility, and extended shelf life. Because flavor is the limiting factor in consumer acceptance of these foods, improved flavor and flavor stability by altering dairy powder characteristics is of great importance. Lipid oxidation is the main mechanism for off-flavor development in dried dairy ingredients, and the distribution of fat may play a critical role in flavor and flavor stability. C. Park and M.A. Drake of North Carolina State Univ. explored how powder characteristics relate to the flavor and flavor stability of dried dairy ingredients to produce products with improved flavor. Recent research documented that increased surface free fat in spray dried WPC80 was associated with increased lipid oxidation and off-flavors. Surface free fat in spray-dried products is fat on the surface of the powder that is not emulsified. The authors provide an extensive chart of the role various process parameters have on surface free fat and flavor. These unit operations can be used to help improve the flavor and flavor stability of dried dairy powders. R452–R459

Optimizing Chlorine-Based Sanitizer Performance

  1. Top of page
  2. Hope for Chronic Garlic Eaters
  3. Manipulating Gut Microbiota through Diet
  4. Decrease Particle Size and Increase Salt Perception
  5. Improving Dried Dairy Products by Understanding Process Parameters
  6. Optimizing Chlorine-Based Sanitizer Performance
  7. Monitoring Splits in Swiss Cheese Using VOCs

Chlorine has been used for sanitation purposes in food processing for several decades and is perhaps the most widely-used sanitizer in the food industry. Safety concerns about the production of chlorinated organic compounds have been raised in recent years, and using chlorine-based sanitizers effectively is an important good sanitation practice. This study examined how pH, dilution, and chloride concentration of chlorine-based sanitizers affect their solution stability and antimicrobial activity. The researchers found that, in working with chlorine-based sanitizers, both pH and Cl- concentrations are important properties. While pH directly affects the antimicrobial activity of free chlorine, Cl− affects the chlorine stability and indirectly affects the antimicrobial activity. They concluded that low pH chlorine-based sanitizers have stronger microbicidal properties than near-neutral pH chlorine-based sanitizers. But, low pH chlorine-based sanitizers are unstable and can lose a significant amount of chlorine during storage. Since chlorine-based sanitizers are sometimes prepared ahead of time and used as needed in food-processing environments, it is important to understand that the level of residual Cl− in these sanitizers could reduce its antimicrobial efficacy over time. One way to maximize the effectiveness of chlorine-based sanitizers is to ensure that the pH of the solution is low when no storage is involved. When long-term storage is needed, the pH of the solution should be maintained at near-neutral pH, but a higher amount of electrolyzed oxidizing water should be used due to lower microbicidal properties than the lower pH solutions. M622–M627

Monitoring Splits in Swiss Cheese Using VOCs

  1. Top of page
  2. Hope for Chronic Garlic Eaters
  3. Manipulating Gut Microbiota through Diet
  4. Decrease Particle Size and Increase Salt Perception
  5. Improving Dried Dairy Products by Understanding Process Parameters
  6. Optimizing Chlorine-Based Sanitizer Performance
  7. Monitoring Splits in Swiss Cheese Using VOCs

Splits/cracks are product defects that are a recurring problem in the manufacture of Swiss cheese. They lead to a downgrade of the cheese and translate into substantial economic loss. These splits and cracks form when the inelastic cheese curd becomes supersaturated with CO2 during the cold ripening process, and the cheese cannot withstand the gas pressure. Multiple factors are believed to cause splits including: low pH during pressing, nonstarter lactic acid bacteria fermentation, anaerobic spore formers, propionic acid bacteria (PAB) with high aspartase activity, low temperature growth of PAB, fermentation of secondary metabolites, loss of texture (rheological properties), and protein hydrolysis. However, there has been no published work on volatile compounds in split compared with non-split Swiss cheese. Researchers from The Ohio State Univ. evaluated the applicability of selected-ion flow tube mass spectrometry for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in split and non-split Swiss cheese samples. The researchers postulate that CO2, released as a by-product along with the production of VOCs, may contribute to overproduction of gas contributing to the formation of splits and cracks in Swiss cheese stored in the cold room. Thus, monitoring VOC profiles of Swiss cheese could be a valuable tool to identify possible solutions to defects during production. C489–C498