• 1
    National Preventative Health Taskforce. Australia: The Healthiest Country by 2020, National Preventative Health Strategy – A Roadmap for Action. Canberra (AUST): Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing, Population Health Strategy Unit; 2009.
  • 2
    Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. GBD Profile: Australia. Seattle (WA): IHME; 2013.
  • 3
    Friel S, Dangour A, Garnett T, Lock K, Chalabi Z, Roberts I, et al. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: Food and agriculture. Lancet. 2009; 374(9706): 201625.
  • 4
    Access Economics. The Growing Cost of Obesity in 2008: Three Years On. Canberra (AUST): Diabetes Australia; 2008.
  • 5
    Costello A, Abbas M, Allen A, Ball S, Bellamy R, et al. Managing the health effects of climate change. Lancet. 2009; 373: 1693733.
  • 6
    Hennessy K, Fitzharris B, Bates B, Havey N, Howden S, Hughes L, et al. Australia and New Zealand. In: Parry M, Canziani O, Palutikof J, van der Linden P, Hanson C, editors. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press; 2007.
  • 7
    McMichael A, Woodruff R, Whetton P, Hennessy K, Nicholls N, Hales S, et al. Human Health and Climate Change in Oceania: A Risk Assessment 2002. Canberra (AUST): Commonwealth Department of Health; 2003.
  • 8
    Woodruff R, Hales S, Butler C, McMichael A. Climate Change Health Impacts on Australia: Effects of Dramatic CO2 Emission Reductions. Canberra (AUST): Australian Conservation Foundation and the Australian Medical Association; 2005.
  • 9
    Styles J. Climate Change: The Case for Action. Canberra (AUST): Commonwealth Parliamentary Library; 2009 [cited 2010 Nov 25]. Available from:
  • 10
    Wiseman J, Edwards T. Post-carbon Pathways: Reviewing Post Carbon Economy Transition Strategies. CPD Occasional Paper No.: 17. Sydney (AUST): Centre for Policy and Development; 2012.
  • 11
    Bloomberg M, Aggarwala R. Think local, act global: How curbing global warming emissions can improve local public health. Am J Prev Med. 2008; 35(5): 41423.
  • 12
    Delpeuch F, Maire B, Monnier E, Holdsworth M. Globesity: A planet out of control? London (UK): Earthscan; 2009.
  • 13
    Egger G. Health, “illth”, and economic growth: Medicine, environment, and economics at the crossroads. Am J Prev Med. 2009; 39(1): 7883.
  • 14
    Egger G, Swinburn B. Planet Obesity: How We're Eating Ourselves and the Planet to Death. Crows Nest (AUST): Allen and Unwin; 2010.
  • 15
    Frank L, Greenwald M, Winkelman S, Chapman J, Kavage S. Carbonless footprints: Promoting health and climate stabilization through active transportation. Prev Med. 2010; 50: S99S105.
  • 16
    Friel S, Bowen K, Campbell-Lendrum D, Frumkin H, McMichael A, Rasanathan K. Climate change, noncommunicable diseases, and development: The relationships and common policy opportunities. Annu Rev Public Health. 2011; 32: 13347.
  • 17
    Haines A, Dora C. How the low carbon economy can improve health. Br Med J. 2012; 344:e1018.
  • 18
    Haines A, Smith K, Anderson D, Epstein P, McMichael A, Roberts I, et al. Policies for accelerating access to clean energy, improving health, advancing development, and mitigating climate change. Lancet. 2007; 370: 126481.
  • 19
    Higgins P, Higgins M. A healthy reduction in oil consumption and carbon emissions. Energy Policy. 2005; 33: 14.
  • 20
    Macdiarmid J, Kyle J, Horgan G, Loe J, Fyfe C, Johnstone A, et al. Sustaining diets for the future: Can we contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by eating a healthy diet? Am J Clin Nutr. 2012; 96: 6329.
  • 21
    McMichael A, Powles J, Butler C, Uauy B. Food, livestock production, energy, climate change, and health. Lancet. 2007; 370: 125363.
  • 22
    Michaelowa A, Dransfeld B. Greenhouse gas benefits of fighting obesity. Ecol Econ. 2008; 66: 298308.
  • 23
    Morabia A, Costanza M. It takes a train to knock down global warming and obesity. Prev Med. 2010; 51: 44950.
  • 24
    Roberts I, Edwards P. The Energy Glut: Climate Change and the Politics of Fatness. London (UK): Zed Books; 2010.
  • 25
    Woodcock J, Edwards P, Tonne C, Armstrong B, Ashiru O, Banister D, et al. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: Urban land transport. Lancet. 2009; 374: 193043.
  • 26
    Younger A, Morrow-Almeida H, Vindigni S, Dannenberg A. The built environment, climate change, and health: Opportunities for co-benefits. Am J Prev Med. 2008; 35(5): 51726.
  • 27
    Morgan L. Dependency theory in the political economy of health: An anthropological critique. Med Anthropol Q. 1987; 1(2): 13154.
  • 28
    McDonnell O, Lohan M, Hyde A, Porter S. Political economy theory, health and healthcare. In: Social Theory, Health and Healthcare. Basingstoke (UK): Palgrave Macmillan; 2009. p. 3662.
  • 29
    Minkler M, Wallace S, McDonald M. The political economy of health: A useful theoretical tool for health education practice. Int Q Community Health Educ. 1995; 15(2): 11125.
  • 30
    Mees P. Public transport policy in Australia: A density delusion? Dissent. 2010; 32: 459.
  • 31
    Australian Bureau of Statistics. 4102.0 – Australian Social Trends, 2008: Public Transport Use for Work and Study. Canberra (AUST): ABS; 2008.
  • 32
    Davison G. Car Wars: How the Car Won Our Hearts and Conquered Our Cities. Crows Nest (AUST): Allen and Unwin; 2004.
  • 33
    Hinde S, Dixon J. Changing the obesogenic environment: Insights from a cultural economy of car reliance. Transp Res Part D Transp Environ. 2005; 10: 3153.
  • 34
    Higgins P. Exercise-based transportation reduces oil dependence, carbon emissions and obesity. Environ Conserv. 2005; 32(3): 197202.
  • 35
    Maibach E, Steg L, Anable J. Promoting physical activity and reducing climate change: Opportunities to replace short car trips with active transport. Prev Med. 2009; 49: 3267.
  • 36
    Davis A, Valsecchi C, Fergusson M. Unfit for Purpose: How Car Use Fuels Climate Change and Obesity. London (UK): Institute for European Environmental Policy; 2007.
  • 37
    Woodcock J, Banister D, Edwards P, Prentice A, Roberts I. Energy and transport. Lancet. 2007; 370: 107888.
  • 38
    Frank L, Andresen M, Schmid T. Obesity relationships with community design, physical activity, and time spent in cars. Am J Prev Med. 2004; 27(2): 8796.
  • 39
    Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency. National Greenhouse Gas Inventory: Accounting for the Kyoto Target May 2010. Canberra (AUST): Commonwealth of Australia; 2010.
  • 40
    Paterson M. Car culture and global environmental politics. Rev Int Stud. 2000; 26: 25370.
  • 41
    Giles-Cort B, Ryan K, Foster S. Increasing Density in Australia: Maximising the Benefits and Minimising the Harm. Melbourne (AUST): National Heart Foundation of Australia; 2012.
  • 42
    Luk J. Reducing car travel in Australian cities: Review report. J Urban Plan Dev. 2003; 129(2): 8496.
  • 43
    Australian Conservation Foundation. Australia's Public Transport: Investment for a Clean Transport Future. Carlton (AUST): ACF; 2011.
  • 44
    Magnus A, Haby M, Carter R, Swinburn B. The cost-effectiveness of removing television advertising of high-fat and/or high-sugar food and beverages to Australian children. Int J Obes. 2009; 33: 1094102.
  • 45
    Bradbury K. Australian diet ‘worse than American'. ABC News. 2010 March 22
  • 46
    Rangan A, Kwan J, Flood V, Louie J, Gill T. Changes in ‘extra’ food intake among Australian children between 1995 and 2007. Obes Res Clin Pract. 2011; 5: e55e63.
  • 47
    Friel S, Marmot M, McMichael A, Kjellstrom T, Vagero D. Global health equity and climate stabilization: A common agenda. Lancet. 2008; 372: 167783.
  • 48
    Australian Conservation Foundation. Consumption Atlas. Carlton (AUST): ACF; 2013 [cited 2013 May 18]. Available from:
  • 49
    Carlsson-Kanyama A, Gonzalez A. Potential contributions of food consumption patterns to climate change. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 889: 1704S9S.
  • 50
    Burns C, Inglis A. Measuring food access in Melbourne: Access to healthy and fast foods by car, bus and foot in an urban municipality in Melbourne. Health Place. 2007; 13: 87785.
  • 51
    Reidpath D, Burns C, Garrard J, Mahoney M, Townsend M. An ecological study of the relationship between social and environmental determinants of obesity. Health Place. 2002; 8: 1415.
  • 52
    Burns C. A Review of the Literature Describing the Link between Poverty, Food Insecurity and Obesity with Specific Reference to Australia. Melbourne (AUST): VicHealth Physical Activity Unit; 2004.
  • 53
    Drewnowski A, Darmon N. The economics of obesity: Dietary energy density and energy cost. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 82: 265S273S.
  • 54
    Lobstein T, Dibb S. Evidence of a possible link between obesogenic food advertising and child overweight. Obes Rev. 2005; 6: 2038.
  • 55
    Strasburger V. Children, adolescents and the media. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care. 2004; 34: 54113.
  • 56
    Jackson T. Prosperity without Growth: Economics for a Finite Planet. London (UK): Earthscan; 2009.
  • 57
    Homer-Dixon T. The Upside of Down: Catastrophe, Creativity, and the Renewal of Civilization. Washington (DC): Island Press; 2006.
  • 58
    Victor P. Managing without Growth: Slower by Design, Not Disaster. Cheltenham (UK): Edward Elgar Publishing; 2008.
  • 59
    Wilkinson R, Pickett K. The Spirit Level: Why More Equal Societies Almost Always Do Better. London (UK): Penguin Books; 2009.
  • 60
    Saunders P. Examining Recent Changes in Income Distribution in Australia. Sydney (AUST): University of New South Wales Social Policy Research Centre; 2003.
  • 61
    Baer H. Towards democratic eco-socialism in Australia as part of a global climate change mitigation strategy: A utopian vision. Proceedings of the Fourth Australian Conference on Utopia, Dystopia and Science Fiction; 2010 Oct 29; Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
  • 62
    Schor J. Plentitude: The New Economics of True Wealth. Carlton North (AUST): Scribe Publications; 2010.
  • 63
    Hayden A, Shandra J. Hours of work and the ecological footprint of nations: An exploratory analysis. Local Environ. 2009; 14(6): 575600.
  • 64
    Martin R. The role of law in the control of obesity in England: Looking at the contribution of law to a healthy food culture. Aust N Z Health Policy. 2008; 5: 21.
  • 65
    Buehler R. Determinants of automobile use: Comparison of Germany and the United States. Transportation Res Rec. 2009; 2139: 16171.
  • 66
    Hensher D. The imbalance between car and public transport use in urban Australia: Why does it exist? Transp Policy. 1998; 5: 193204.
  • 67
    National Public Health Partnership. Promoting Active Transport: An Intervention Portfolio to Increase Physical Activity as a Means of Transport. Melbourne (AUST): National Public Health Partnership; 2001.
  • 68
    Carter N. The Politics of the Environment: Ideas, Activism, Policy. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press; 2001.
  • 69
    Rissel C. Active travel: A climate change mitigation strategy with co-benefits for health. NSW Public Health Bull. 2009; 20 (1–2): 103.
  • 70
    MacDonald J, Stokes R, Cohen D, Kofner A, Ridgeway G. The effect of light rail transit on body mass index and physical activity. Am J Prev Med. 2010; 39(2): 10512.
  • 71
    Public Transport Users Association. Common Urban Myths about Transport – Myth: Public Transport doesn't Really Save Energy. Melbourne (AUST): PTUA; 2009 [cited 2011 May 29]. Available from:
  • 72
    Public Transport Users Association. What Makes Public Transport Work? Melbourne (AUST): PTUA; 2010 [cited 2011 May 12]. Available from:
  • 73
    Pucher J, Buehler R. Making cycling irresistible: Lessons from The Netherlands, Denmark and Germany. Transport Rev. 2008; 28(4): 495528.
  • 74
    McCormack G, Giles-Corti B, Balsara M. The relationship between destination proximity, destination mix and physical activity behaviors. Prev Med. 2008; 46(1): 3340.
  • 75
    Pucher J, Garrard J, Greaves S. Cycling down under: A comparative analysis of bicycling trends and policies in Sydney and Melbourne. J Transp Geogr. 2011; 19: 33245.
  • 76
    Saelens B, Handy S. Built environment correlates of walking: A review. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008; 40 Suppl 7:S55066.
  • 77
    Caraher M, Landon J, Dalmeny K. Television advertising and children: Lessons from policy development. Public Health Nutr. 2006; 9(5): 596605.
  • 78
    Public Health Association of Australia. Restrictions on Junk Food Advertising to Kiddies – Senate Wrong [Media Release]. Canberra (AUST): PHAA; 2011 March 4.
  • 79
    Powell L, Chaloupka F. Food prices and obesity: Evidence and policy implications for taxation and subsidies. Millbank Q. 2009; 87(1): 22957.
  • 80
    Holt E. Hungary to introduce broad range of fat taxes. Lancet. 2011; 378(9793): 755.
  • 81
    Dixon J, Donati K, Pike L, Hattersley L. Functional foods and urban agriculture: Two responses to climate change-related food security. NSW Public Health Bull. 2009; 20 (1–2): 148.
  • 82
    Pearson A, Wilson N. Optimising locational access of deprived populations to farmers’ markets at a national scale: One route to improved fruit and vegetable consumption? PeerJ. 2013; 1 (e94).
  • 83
    Plibersek T, Neumann S. Star Rating System for Packaged Foods [Joint Media Release]. Canberra (AUST): Commonwealth Department of Health; 2013 June 14.
  • 84
    Olofsdotter M, Juul J, editors. Climate Change and the Food Industry. Climate Labelling for Food Products: Potential and Limitations: Oersund (SWE): Oresund Food Network and Oresund Environment Academy; 2008.
  • 85
    Shwom R, Lorenzen J. Changing household consumption to address climate change: Social scientific insights and challenges. WIREs Clim Change. 2012; 3: 37995.
  • 86
    Jackson T, Victor P. Productivity and work in the ‘green economy’: Some theoretical reflections and empirical tests. Environ Innov Soc Transit. 2011; 1: 1018.
  • 87
    Clean Energy Regulator. Starting Emissions Trading on 1 July 2014: Policy Summary. Canberra (AUST): Commonwealth of Australia; 2013.
  • 88
    Norfolk Island Carbon/Health Evaluation. The Norfolk Island Carbon/Health Evaluation Study. Norfolk Island (AUST); NICHE; 2011 [cited 2013 Aug 19]. Available from: