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Keywords:

  • adjuvant-induced arthritis;
  • albino rats;
  • articular/extra-articular manifestations;
  • ginger-turmeric mixture;
  • indomethacin

Abstract

Aim

Besides joint destruction, extra-articular complications (outside the locomotor system) are frequent in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, especially cardiovascular, hematological and metabolic disorders. Here, we evaluated and compared the protective activity of two different doses of mixture of ginger and turmeric rhizomes powder (1 : 1) suspended in distilled water (GTaq) in alleviating both articular and extra-articular manifestations in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA).

Methods

Arthritis was induced by a single intra-dermal injection of 0.1 mL of Complete Freund's adjuvant (containing heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis) into the palmar surface of the left hind paw after the rats were subjected to light diethyl ether anesthesia. Arthritic rats received orally and daily (for 28 consecutive days) distilled water as vehicle, indomethacin (1.0 mg/kg body weight), or GTaq (200 or 400 mg/kg body weight) from the day of arthritis induction.

Results

The present study showed that GTaq (especially the high dose) was more effective (4.2–38.4% higher, < 0.05–0.001) than indomethacin (a non-steroidal/anti-inflammatory drug) in alleviating the loss in body weight gain, the histopathological changes observed in ankle joints, blood leukocytosis and thrombocytosis, iron deficiency anemia, serum hypoalbuminemia and globulinemia, the impairment of kidney functions, and the risks for cardiovascular disease in arthritic rats. These protective effects of GTaq were mediated through increasing the food intake and decreasing the systemic inflammation that occur at the appearance of polyarthritis, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia.

Conclusion

Ginger-turmeric rhizomes mixture may be effective against RA severity and complications as shown in an AIA rat model.