Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease, characterized by the production of autoantibodies against multiple organs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding, single-stranded small RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Evidence is accumulating that miRNAs play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of SLE. This article reviews the pertinent publications (searched from the PubMed database) involving the mechanisms of actions of miRNA associated with the pathogenesis of SLE. The search of related literature was extended as far back as 1979. In this mini-review we first introduce the miRNAs briefly and later discuss their regulatory roles in the DNA methylation pathway, type I interferon pathway, estrogen and regulatory T-cells in the pathogenesis of SLE.