• 1
    Alamanos Y, Drosos AA (2005) Epidemiology of adult rheumatoid arthritis. Autoimmun Rev 4 (3), 1306.
  • 2
    Szodoray P, Szabo Z, Kapitany A et al. (2010) Anti-citrullinated protein/peptide autoantibodies in association with genetic and environmental factors as indicators of disease outcome in rheumatoid arthritis. Autoimmun Rev 9 (3), 1403.
  • 3
    Mottonen TT (1988) Prediction of erosiveness and rate of development of new erosions in early rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 47 (8), 64853.
  • 4
    Steiner G, Smolen J (2002) Autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis and their clinical significance. Arthritis Res 4 (Suppl. 2), S15.
  • 5
    Szekanecz Z, Soos L, Szabo Z et al. (2008) Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis: as good as it gets? Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 34 (1), 2631.
  • 6
    Conrad K, Roggenbuck D, Reinhold D, Dorner T (2010) Profiling of rheumatoid arthritis associated autoantibodies. Autoimmun Rev 9 (6), 4315.
  • 7
    Arnett FC, Edworthy SM, Bloch DA et al. (1988) The American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 31 (3), 31524.
  • 8
    van Venrooij WJ, Pruijn GJ (2000) Citrullination: a small change for a protein with great consequences for rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res 2 (4), 24951.
  • 9
    van der Helm-van Mil AH, Wesoly JZ, Huizinga TW (2005) Understanding the genetic contribution to rheumatoid arthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 17 (3), 299304.
  • 10
    Vossenaar ER, Smeets TJ, Kraan MC, Raats JM, van Venrooij WJ, Tak PP (2004) The presence of citrullinated proteins is not specific for rheumatoid synovial tissue. Arthritis Rheum 50 (11), 348594.
  • 11
    Nienhuis RL, Mandema E (1964) A new serum factor in patients with rheumatoid arthritis; the antiperinuclear factor. Ann Rheum Dis 23, 3025.
  • 12
    Hoet RM, Boerbooms AM, Arends M, Ruiter DJ, van Venrooij WJ (1991) Antiperinuclear factor, a marker autoantibody for rheumatoid arthritis: colocalisation of the perinuclear factor and profilaggrin. Ann Rheum Dis 50 (9), 6118.
  • 13
    Westgeest AA, Boerbooms AM, Jongmans M, Vandenbroucke JP, Vierwinden G, van de Putte LB (1987) Antiperinuclear factor: indicator of more severe disease in seronegative rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 14 (5), 8937.
  • 14
    Chang X, Jian X, Yan X (2009) Expression and citrullination of keratin in synovial tissue of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatol Int 29 (11), 133742.
  • 15
    Simon M, Girbal E, Sebbag M et al. (1993) The cytokeratin filament-aggregating protein filaggrin is the target of the so-called “antikeratin antibodies”, autoantibodies specific for rheumatoid arthritis. J Clin Invest 92 (3), 138793.
  • 16
    Schellekens GA, de Jong BA, van den Hoogen FH, van de Putte LB, van Venrooij WJ (1998) Citrulline is an essential constituent of antigenic determinants recognized by rheumatoid arthritis-specific autoantibodies. J Clin Invest 101 (1), 27381.
  • 17
    Egerer K, Feist E, Burmester GR (2009) The serological diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis: antibodies to citrullinated antigens. Dtsch Arztebl Int 106 (10), 15963.
  • 18
    van Boekel MA, Vossenaar ER, van den Hoogen FH, van Venrooij WJ (2002) Autoantibody systems in rheumatoid arthritis: specificity, sensitivity and diagnostic value. Arthritis Res 4 (2), 8793.
  • 19
    Vossenaar ER, Zendman AJ, van Venrooij WJ, Pruijn GJ (2003) PAD, a growing family of citrullinating enzymes: genes, features and involvement in disease. BioEssays 25 (11), 110618.
  • 20
    Masson-Bessière C, Sebbag M, Girbal-Neuhauser E et al. (2001) The major synovial targets of the rheumatoid arthritis-specific antifilaggrin autoantibodies are deiminated forms of the alpha- and beta-chains of fibrin. J Immunol 166 (6), 417784.
  • 21
    Chapuy-Regaud S, Sebbag M, Baeten D et al. (2005) Fibrin deimination in synovial tissue is not specific for rheumatoid arthritis but commonly occurs during synovitides. J Immunol 174 (8), 505764.
  • 22
    Sanchez-Pernaute O, Largo R, Calvo E, Alvarez-Soria MA, Egido J, Herrero-Beaumont G (2003) A fibrin based model for rheumatoid synovitis. Ann Rheum Dis 62 (12), 11358.
  • 23
    Takizawa Y, Suzuki A, Sawada T et al. (2006) Citrullinated fibrinogen detected as a soluble citrullinated autoantigen in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluids. Ann Rheum Dis 65 (8), 101320.
  • 24
    Scott DL, Wainwright AC, Walton KW, Williamson N (1981) Significance of fibronectin in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthrosis. Ann Rheum Dis 40 (2), 14253.
  • 25
    Sanchez-Pernaute O, Lopez-Armada MJ, Calvo E et al. (2003) Fibrin generated in the synovial fluid activates intimal cells from their apical surface: a sequential morphological study in antigen-induced arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 42 (1), 1925.
  • 26
    Chang X, Yamada R, Suzuki A, Kochi Y, Sawada T, Yamamoto K (2005) Citrullination of fibronectin in rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue. Rheumatology (Oxford) 44 (11), 137482.
  • 27
    Shelef MA, Bennin DA, Mosher DF, Huttenlocher A (2012) Citrullination of fibronectin modulates synovial fibroblast behavior. Arthritis Res Ther 14 (6), R240.
  • 28
    Vossenaar ER (2004) Expression and activity of citrullinating peptidylarginine deiminase enzymes in monocytes and macrophages. Ann Rheum Dis 63 (4), 37381.
  • 29
    Auger I, Sebbag M, Vincent C et al. (2005) Influence of HLA-DR genes on the production of rheumatoid arthritis-specific autoantibodies to citrullinated fibrinogen. Arthritis Rheum 52 (11), 342432.
  • 30
    Vossenaar ER, Despres N, Lapointe E et al. (2004) Rheumatoid arthritis specific anti-Sa antibodies target citrullinated vimentin. Arthritis Res Ther 6 (2), R14250.
  • 31
    Hueber W, Hassfeld W, Smolen JS, Steiner G (1999) Sensitivity and specificity of anti-Sa autoantibodies for rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 38 (2), 1559.
  • 32
    Dejaco C, Klotz W, Larcher H, Duftner C, Schirmer M, Herold M (2006) Diagnostic value of antibodies against a modified citrullinated vimentin in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther 8 (4), R119.
  • 33
    Vossenaar ER, Zendman AJ, Van Venrooij WJ (2004) Citrullination, a possible functional link between susceptibility genes and rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther 6 (1), 15.
  • 34
    Klareskog L, Ronnelid J, Lundberg K, Padyukov L, Alfredsson L (2008) Immunity to citrullinated proteins in rheumatoid arthritis. Annu Rev Immunol 26, 65175.
  • 35
    Baka Z, Buzas E, Nagy G (2009) Rheumatoid arthritis and smoking: putting the pieces together. Arthritis Res Ther 11 (4), 238.
  • 36
    Hill JA, Wang D, Jevnikar AM, Cairns E, Bell DA (2003) The relationship between predicted peptide-MHC class II affinity and T-cell activation in a HLA-DRbeta1*0401 transgenic mouse model. Arthritis Res Ther 5 (1), R408.
  • 37
    Tarcsa E, Marekov LN, Mei G, Melino G, Lee SC, Steinert PM (1996) Protein unfolding by peptidylarginine deiminase. Substrate specificity and structural relationships of the natural substrates trichohyalin and filaggrin. J Biol Chem 271 (48), 3070916.
  • 38
    Rogers GE, Harding HW, Llewellyn-Smith IJ (1977) The origin of citrulline-containing proteins in the hair follicle and the chemical nature of trichohyalin, an intracellular precursor. Biochim Biophys Acta 495 (1), 15975.
  • 39
    Suzuki A, Yamada R, Chang X et al. (2003) Functional haplotypes of PADI4, encoding citrullinating enzyme peptidylarginine deiminase 4, are associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Nat Genet 34 (4), 395402.
  • 40
    Takahara H, Okamoto H, Sugawara K (1986) Calcium-dependent properties of peptidylargininedeiminase from rabbit skeletal muscle. Agric Biol Chem 50, 2899904.
  • 41
    Schwab BL, Guerini D, Didszun C et al. (2002) Cleavage of plasma membrane calcium pumps by caspases: a link between apoptosis and necrosis. Cell Death Differ 9 (8), 81831.
  • 42
    van Venrooij WJ, Pruijn GJ (2008) An important step towards completing the rheumatoid arthritis cycle. Arthritis Res Ther 10 (5), 117.
  • 43
    Mechin MC, Sebbag M, Arnaud J et al. (2007) Update on peptidylarginine deiminases and deimination in skin physiology and severe human diseases. Int J Cosmet Sci 29 (3), 14768.
  • 44
    Matsuo K, Xiang Y, Nakamura H et al. (2006) Identification of novel citrullinated autoantigens of synovium in rheumatoid arthritis using a proteomic approach. Arthritis Res Ther 8 (6), R175.
  • 45
    Vincent C, Nogueira L, Clavel C, Sebbag M, Serre G (2005) Autoantibodies to citrullinated proteins: ACPA. Autoimmunity 38 (1), 1724.
  • 46
    Verpoort KN, Jol-van der Zijde CM, Papendrecht-van der Voort EA et al. (2006) Isotype distribution of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in undifferentiated arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis reflects an ongoing immune response. Arthritis Rheum 54 (12), 3799808.
  • 47
    De Rycke L, Nicholas AP, Cantaert T et al. (2005) Synovial intracellular citrullinated proteins colocalizing with peptidyl arginine deiminase as pathophysiologically relevant antigenic determinants of rheumatoid arthritis-specific humoral autoimmunity. Arthritis Rheum 52 (8), 232330.
  • 48
    Vossenaar ER, van Venrooij WJ (2004) Citrullinated proteins: sparks that may ignite the fire in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther 6 (3), 10711.
  • 49
    De Rycke L, Peene I, Hoffman IE et al. (2004) Rheumatoid factor and anticitrullinated protein antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis: diagnostic value, associations with radiological progression rate, and extra-articular manifestations. Ann Rheum Dis 63 (12), 158793.
  • 50
    van der Helm-van Mil AH, Verpoort KN, Breedveld FC, Huizinga TW, Toes RE, de Vries RR (2006) The HLA-DRB1 shared epitope alleles are primarily a risk factor for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and are not an independent risk factor for development of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 54 (4), 111721.
  • 51
    Irigoyen P, Lee AT, Wener MH et al. (2005) Regulation of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis: contrasting effects of HLA-DR3 and the shared epitope alleles. Arthritis Rheum 52 (12), 38138.
  • 52
    Roudier J (2000) Association of MHC and rheumatoid arthritis. Association of RA with HLA-DR4: the role of repertoire selection. Arthritis Res 2 (3), 21720.
  • 53
    Cantaert T, De Rycke L, Bongartz T et al. (2006) Citrullinated proteins in rheumatoid arthritis: crucial but not sufficient!. Arthritis Rheum 54 (11), 33819.
  • 54
    Sebbag M, Simon M, Vincent C et al. (1995) The antiperinuclear factor and the so-called antikeratin antibodies are the same rheumatoid arthritis-specific autoantibodies. J Clin Invest 95 (6), 26729.
  • 55
    Vallbracht I, Rieber J, Oppermann M, Forger F, Siebert U, Helmke K (2004) Diagnostic and clinical value of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies compared with rheumatoid factor isotypes in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 63 (9), 107984.
  • 56
    Schellekens GA, Visser H, de Jong BA et al. (2000) The diagnostic properties of rheumatoid arthritis antibodies recognizing a cyclic citrullinated peptide. Arthritis Rheum 43 (1), 15563.
  • 57
    Pai S, Pai L, Birkenfeldt R (1998) Correlation of serum IgA rheumatoid factor levels with disease severity in rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Rheumatol 27 (4), 2526.
  • 58
    Goldbach-Mansky R, Lee J, McCoy A et al. (2000) Rheumatoid arthritis associated autoantibodies in patients with synovitis of recent onset. Arthritis Res 2 (3), 23643.
  • 59
    Combe B, Landewe R, Lukas C et al. (2007) EULAR recommendations for the management of early arthritis: report of a task force of the European Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics (ESCISIT). Ann Rheum Dis 66 (1), 3445.
  • 60
    Soos L, Szekanecz Z, Szabo Z et al. (2007) Clinical evaluation of anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin by ELISA in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 34 (8), 165863.
  • 61
    Bang H, Egerer K, Gauliard A et al. (2007) Mutation and citrullination modifies vimentin to a novel autoantigen for rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 56 (8), 250311.
  • 62
    Hayem G, Chazerain P, Combe B et al. (1999) Anti-Sa antibody is an accurate diagnostic and prognostic marker in adult rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 26 (1), 713.
  • 63
    Rodriguez-Mahou M, Lopez-Longo FJ, Sanchez-Ramon S et al. (2006) Association of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide and anti-Sa/citrullinated vimentin autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 55 (4), 65761.
  • 64
    Nielen MM, van der Horst AR, van Schaardenburg D et al. (2005) Antibodies to citrullinated human fibrinogen (ACF) have diagnostic and prognostic value in early arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 64 (8), 1199204.
  • 65
    van Gaalen FA, Linn-Rasker SP, van Venrooij WJ et al. (2004) Autoantibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides predict progression to rheumatoid arthritis in patients with undifferentiated arthritis: a prospective cohort study. Arthritis Rheum 50 (3), 70915.
  • 66
    Kastbom A, Strandberg G, Lindroos A, Skogh T (2004) Anti-CCP antibody test predicts the disease course during 3 years in early rheumatoid arthritis (the Swedish TIRA project). Ann Rheum Dis 63 (9), 10859.
  • 67
    Shovman O, Gilburd B, Zandman-Goddard G et al. (2005) The diagnostic utility of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, matrix metalloproteinase-3, rheumatoid factor, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein in patients with erosive and non-erosive rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Dev Immunol 12 (3), 197202.
  • 68
    Nielen MM, van Schaardenburg D, Reesink HW et al. (2004) Specific autoantibodies precede the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis: a study of serial measurements in blood donors. Arthritis Rheum 50 (2), 3806.