Ammonia oxidizers are pioneer microorganisms in the colonization of new acidic volcanic soils from South of Chile
Article first published online: 21 OCT 2013
© 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Environmental Microbiology Reports
Volume 6, Issue 1, pages 70–79, February 2014
How to Cite
Hernández, M., Dumont, M. G., Calabi, M., Basualto, D. and Conrad, R. (2014), Ammonia oxidizers are pioneer microorganisms in the colonization of new acidic volcanic soils from South of Chile. Environmental Microbiology Reports, 6: 70–79. doi: 10.1111/1758-2229.12109
- Issue published online: 20 JAN 2014
- Article first published online: 21 OCT 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 20 SEP 2013 02:12AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 14 SEP 2013
- Manuscript Received: 15 MAY 2013
- Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Germany
Fig. S1. Map of Llaima volcano showing the years of recent lava eruptions and the location of sampling sites (modified from Naranjo and Moreno, 2005). Exact positions were obtained by global positioning system data and are detailed in Table S1.
Fig. S2. Nitrate concentration during incubation of three different sampling sites. Shaken-slurry method of soils incubated with (NH4)2SO4 for 28 days were analysed. Soils were incubated in absence and presence of 100 Pa C2H2. Bars represent standard deviations of triplicate incubations. Different letters above the bars indicate statistically significant differences between the treatments (one-way analysis of variance with Tukey's post hoc test at P ≤ 0.05).
Fig. S3. Abundance of (A) archaeal and (B) bacterial amoA genes of three different sampling sites from volcanic soils studied in the present study. Shaken-slurry method of soils incubated with (NH4)2SO4 for 28 days were analysed. Soils were incubated in absence and presence of 100 Pa C2H2. Bars represent standard deviations of triplicate samples.
Fig. S4. Constrained correspondence analysis calculated from archaeal amoA T-RFLP data (NlaIII) from fresh volcanic soils (n = 9). T-RFs with normalized peak areas of < 2% were excluded from the analysis. Numbers next to the crosses describe the size of T-RFs.
Table S1. Physico-chemical characteristics of the volcanic soils used in the present study.
Table S2. Primer sets and PCR conditions used in this study.
Table S3. Operational taxonomic unit (OTU) and Shannon index of bacterial and archaeal amoA sequences. OTUs were defined at a sequence identity level of 93% for bacterial amoA and 88% and 87% for archaeal amoA at 0 and 28 days incubation respectively.
Table S4. Number of archaeal (AOA) and bacterial (AOB) amoA gene clones retrieved from different volcanic soils and length of terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) with different restriction enzymes.
Appendix S1. Experimental procedures.
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