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emi412140-sup-0001-fig_s1.eps753K

Fig. S1. Image of rocks collected from the streams. Biofilm growth is mostly limited to the equator of the rocks. Green biofilms are located on the upper side.

emi412140-sup-0002-fig_s2.eps3148K

Fig. S2. Example of flow velocities measured in situ above a cobble at a vertical distance of 2 cm. Panel (A) shows all three cartesian components of the velocity vector (z-component corresponds to the vertical direction), as well as the vector magnitude, as a function of time. Panel (B) shows the projections of the velocity vector in the vertical plane (the time axis is collapsed).

emi412140-sup-0003-fig_s3.eps6813K

Fig. S3. Salinity distributions above the surface of rocks immersed in hypersaline water (300 g L−1) and exposed to freshwater flow from below at a vertical flow velocity of 7 cm s−1. Shown are examples for a rock without a biofilm and for two rocks partially covered with biofilms. Colour bar values are in g L−1.

emi412140-sup-0004-video_s1.mov14850K

Video Clip S1. An in situ colour injection experiment showing the freshwater flow around a rock at the edge of a spring. The main flow of the spring is not visible in this close-up video.

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