Fig. S1. Neighbour-joining tree showing phylogenetic positions of 16S rRNA gene sequences detected from Tukh Lake samples and isolates. Subtrees of (A) Firmicutes- and Actinobacteria-related sequences, (B) Proteobacteria-related sequences, and (C) Bacteroidetes-, Deinococcus-, Verrucomicrobia- and Planctomycetes-related sequences are shown. Sequences were obtained from lake sediments (1A and 2A) and lakeshore soils (1C and 2C) from two locations (1 and 2). Sequences corresponding to nucleotide positions 537–1370 of the Escherichia coli 16S rRNA gene were used for the analysis. Tree = Neighbour-joining method; bar = number of substitutions per sequence position; numbers in parentheses = number of clone sequences obtained for each sequence type. Bootstrap values (per 1000 trials) greater than 50% are indicated. Aquifex aeolicus (AJ309733) was used as an outgroup (not shown). The nucleotide sequences reported here have been deposited in the GenBank database under accession numbers KC852951–KC853004.

Fig. S2. Growth of the anaerobic arsenite-oxidizing strain ANAO-440. Closed triangle, 10 mM nitrate, 10 mM arsenite and 0.5% (w/v) Luria broth; closed circle, 10 mM nitrate and 0.5% (w/v) Luria broth; open triangle, un-inoculated control. Symbols represent the mean of triplicate samples, and error bars represent the standard deviation.

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