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emi412148-sup-0001-fs1.pdf42K

Fig. S1. Summary box-plots of main soil properties measured in the 58 soil samples from this study (Fig. 1) that were previously reported in Álvarez and colleagues (2007) and Soriano and colleagues (2013), and that are shown as supporting information. Detailed description of field measurements, soil sampling procedures and methods used for the determination of physico-chemical properties of soils was reported in those studies. Briefly, on each farm, a sampling area (three rows of four trees each) considered representative of the olive orchard was selected. A representative sampling area was also selected on each NV area. Soil samples were collected in the area outside the canopy of the trees at five random points (0–10 cm depth) in each sampling area. Samples for DNA extraction and determination of soil biological properties (including population of total culturable heterotrophic bacteria and microbial respiration were all collected in each location on the same day during the summer of 2006 (June 25 for Sierra and July 12 for Campiña), and frozen at −80°C until analyzed.

emi412148-sup-0002-fs2.pdf130K

Fig. S2. Classification of 46 commercial organic olive orchards and 12 areas with natural vegetation sampled in two locations (Sierra and Campiña) according to four soil types [Eutric Regosol (RGeu), Eutric Cambisol (CMeu), Calcaric Regosol (RGca), and Calcaric Cambisol (CMca)]. A stepwise canonical discriminant analysis was performed according to Jiménez-Díaz and colleagues (2011) to select the most informative TRFs to discriminate among soil types using the STEPDISC procedure of SAS (Statistical Analysis System, version 9.2; SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). Then, the DISCRIM procedure of SAS was used to determine the classification accuracy of the set of olive orchard groups (Supporting information Table S1). Results shown are based on the first, second and third canonical functions (roots), from the canonical analysis performed using the CANDISC procedure of SAS for the relative abundance of a subset of 16S rDNA terminal restriction fragments (TRF) selected in the stepwise discriminant analysis for MspI (upper graphs) and RsaI (lower graphs) restriction enzymes shown in Table 3. Canonical roots means (centroid values) were calculated for each classification variable and significance between means was determined using Mahalanobis distance (Khattree and Naik, 2000).

emi412148-sup-0003-fs3.pdf74K

Fig. S3. Classification of 46 commercial organic olive orchards and 12 areas with natural vegetation sampled in two locations (Sierra and Campiña) according to six soil management systems [light tillage (LT) and sheep grazing (G) in Sierra; tillage (T) and mechanical mowing (M) in Campiña; undisturbed areas covered by natural vegetation (NV-C in Campiña and NV-S in Sierra)]. Results shown are based on the first, second and third canonical functions (roots), from the stepwise canonical discriminant analysis performed as described for Supporting information Fig. S2 for the relative abundance of a subset of 16S rDNA terminal restriction fragments (TRF) selected in the stepwise discriminant analysis for single MspI (upper panels) and RsaI (lower panels) restriction enzymes shown in Table 3. Canonical roots means (centroid values) were calculated for each classification variable and significance between means was determined using Mahalanobis distance (Khattree and Naik, 2000).

emi412148-sup-0004-ts1.doc74K

Table S1. Classification matrixa after the stepwise discriminant analysis of olive orchard soils and nearby natural areas soils with different soil types and soil management systems (SMS) in two of the most representative areas for olive cultivation (Campiña and Sierra) in Córdoba province, in Southern Spain.

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