Real Time Monitoring for the Most Vulnerable: Pre-Primary Education in Bangladesh


  • Mahmuda Akhter,

    1. Executive Director of the Institute of Child and Human Development, since February 2012. From 2005–January 2012 she was the Head of Early Childhood Development Resource Centre at the Institute of Educational Development, BRAC University.
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  • Jay Chaudhuri

    1. Development professional with several years of experience working in monitoring and evaluation, most recently working at UNICEF-HQ as Project Coordinator for the Real Time Monitoring for the Most Vulnerable (RTMMV) initiative.
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One of the most unique examples of real-time monitoring supported by UNICEF is found in Bangladesh in the pre-primary education (PPE) programme operated by BRAC. Randomisation techniques are used for school selection by monitors as well as for intra-classroom sampling to test learning outcomes. Monitoring is a multi-level decentralised learning process that allows staff members to compare actual performance, outputs and results against standards. Monitoring duties are executed by the programme staff themselves as well as by the organisation. The intent is to promote internal programme learning, not just logical framework type reporting, and builds on the recognition that monitoring is only effective if it enables responses to programme implementation. The BRAC initiative demonstrates that monitoring with a real-time component can be central to a strategy emphasising learning outcomes. It also shows that ICTs are not a necessary ingredient of ‘real-time’ monitoring despite the current fashion in thinking.