Appendix S1. Additional results and methodological discussion.

Fig. S1. Lognormal distribution of per-collection sampling rates (Rc) for 100 taxa.

Fig. S2. Probabilities of X occurrences for the four species with corresponding colors in Fig. 1.

Fig. S3. Expected species with X occurrences.

Fig. S4. Expected rank order plot of numbers of occurrences against ranked taxa.

Fig. S5. Distributions of per-collection preservation rates for Meso-Cenozoic mammals, broken down by basic geographic units.

Fig. S6. Estimated probabilities that unsampled lineages resided in Eurasia (red) or North America (blue).

Fig. S7. Alternate phylogenies with the same cladistic topology using different methods to calibrate branch durations and divergence times.

Table S1. Parameters from the best hypothesis of each model.

Table S2. AICc for the best representatives of the three rate distribution models considered for per-collection sampling rates.

Table S3. Parameters from the best hypothesis of each model.

Table S4. Stratigraphic likelihoods given gaps hypothesized by carnivoramorphan phylogeny (Fig. 6).

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