Jordanian Women's Personal Practices Regarding Prevention and Early Detection of Breast Cancer


  • The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose.
  • Author contributions:

    1. Mahmoud Al-Hussami, DSc, PhD (primary author), was responsible for the design, methods, data collection, and analysis of data; identified the topic and specified goals and objectives of the survey; defined the research problem and evaluated study designs; formulated hypotheses, concepts, and operational definitions; wrote and reviewed the relevant theoretical and research literature; selected the population of interest and methods for data collection: assessed reliability and validity; chose sampling procedures; calculated sample size; developed and pretested questionnaire, and consent procedures; prepared an analysis plan, revised methods, and restated the research problem; wrote and submitted protocol to scientific research committee; implemented data collation procedures and monitored progress; coded and analyzed data; answered the research questions, tested hypotheses thoroughly, and explained results; prepared research report, and sought comments and criticism; and sent report to publisher and distributed to interested audiences.

    2. Ruqayya Zeilani, RN, PhD, participated in coding and analysis of data, and in reviewing the research manuscript.

    3. Omar Abdelhameed AlKhawaldeh, RN, PhD, participated in implementing data collation procedures and monitored progress.

    4. Lubna Abushaika, RN, PhD, participated in coding and analysis of data, and in reviewing the research manuscript.



Breast cancer, as a leading cause of mortality, is responsible for 12.5% of all deaths in Jordan.


The aim of this study was to describe Jordanian women's personal practices and perceptions of breast cancer screening tests.


A quantitative cross-sectional survey using a proportionate stratified sample of 331 women was conducted. The target population includes all Jordanian women living in high- and low-density neighborhoods. The population involved women from the 12 governorates areas.


Perception of susceptibility, confidence in performing breast self-examination (BSE) barriers of the group that had previously performed BSE were significantly higher than those who did not practice (t = 8.38, p = .02; t = 9.90, p = .00; t = −0.98, p = .01, respectively).


The results of this study provide information to policy makers and healthcare leaders who seek to improve breast cancer prevention and response to cancer control efforts.