Trichoderma species on Agaricus bisporus farms in Serbia and their biocontrol



I. Potočnik, Institute of Pesticides and Environmental Protection, Banatska 31b, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia.



Twenty Trichoderma isolates were collected on 13 Serbian Agaricus bisporus farms and one in Bosnia and Herzegovina during 2006–2010. Twelve isolates were classified into five species by standard mycological studies and ITS1/ITS4 sequence analyses, namely Trichoderma atroviride, Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma virens, Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum and Trichoderma harzianum. Eight isolates were not identified to the species level but were shown to be related to T. harzianum. The isolates of T. harzianum exhibited the highest virulence to the harvested A. bisporus pilei and T. virens and T. aggressivum f. europaeum the lowest. Antifungal activity of two biofungicides based on Bacillus subtilis and tea tree oil and the fungicide prochloraz manganese were tested in vitro to all Trichoderma isolates. Prochloraz manganese and B. subtilis were highly toxic to all tested Trichoderma isolates, their ED50 values were below 0.3 and 1.3 mg L−1, respectively. Tea tree oil did not exhibit a significant antifungal activity (ED50 = 11.9–370.8 mg L−1). The effectiveness of biofungicides was evaluated against T. harzianum in a mushroom growing room, and they were applied alone or in combination with the fungicide at a respective proportion of 20:80%. Prochloraz manganese showed higher effectiveness than both tested biofungicides or their respective mixtures. The biofungicide based on B. subtilis demonstrated greater effectiveness in preventing disease symptoms than tea tree oil. B. subtilis combined with the fungicide revealed less antagonism in effectiveness against pathogen than tea tree oil.