The pear (Pyrus communis L.) is a fruit species grown in many temperate regions of the world. Turkey harbours a rich and ancient pear germplasm adapted to diverse ecological regions of the country. The aim of this study was to genetically characterise locally grown Anatolian pear germplasm. We have analysed large numbers (228) of pear accessions originated from six eco-geographically diverse regions using 18 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and identified 308 SSR alleles. Genetic similarities among the accessions examined were generally below 80%. The highest heterozygosity rate was obtained for the SSR locus ‘CH02D11’ derived from apples and ‘KA16’ and ‘NH0021a’ derived from pears. No identical or synonymous genotypes were found, while five homonymous genotypes were identified. Factorial correspondence analysis could not clearly separate different pear accession groups studied, suggesting that Anatolian pear accessions were intermixed possibly due to gene flow and/or germplasm movements between different eco-geographical regions. However, most pear accessions were grouped according to their collection sites in structure analyses. The SSR data reported here for Anatolian pear accessions will be valuable for future germplasm management efforts as well as for comparative studies that investigate genetic relationships of pears from Anatolia and the surrounding regions.