• Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici;
  • olive residue compost;
  • poultry manure;
  • soil pH;
  • TaqMan probes;
  • toxic compounds from amendments


Organic soil amendments play important roles in the reduction of plant diseases caused by soil-borne plant pathogens. This study examined the combined effects of concentrations of organic amendments, temperature and period of incubation in soil on the management of Fusarium wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol). In an experiment with substrate mixture, Fol reduction was higher when the soils were incubated at 35°C than at 30°C. Disease severity was proportionally reduced as the volume of amendment added increased. Furthermore, disease was significantly lower in substrates incubated for 30 days at both temperatures, as compared to substrates incubated for only 15 days. The most effective control was achieved with pelletised poultry manure (PPM). In experiments with natural sandy soil, the effects of amendments on Fol populations, measured by real-time quantitative PCR with TaqMan probes, were significant. The highest decreases in Fol DNA resulted when the soil was amended with 2% PPM and incubated at 35°C. The reductions in DNA concentrations was most likely related to the accumulations of high concentrations of NH3 (27.3 mM) in soils treated with 2% PPM and incubated at room temperature (RT; 23 ± 2°C), or at 35°C. Severity of plants grown in soils incubated at RT decreased by over 40%, and more than 73% when incubated at 35°C, regardless of the rate of PPM. The results indicate that the management with PPM, when combined with heating or solarisation, is an effective control measure against Fusarium wilt of tomato.